Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Information -- Browse or search the North American Flyways Directory, 1996. Included are names, phone numbers, and addresses of flyway council and technical committe members and a host of other organizations and individuals involved with migratory bird issues in North America.
Update -- Feature of the Month. Many species of butterflies are at peak numbers in July. Our feature of the month, Butterflies of the United States, shows color photographs of hundreds of butterfly species and which species have been recorded in a particular state or county.
Update -- I've Got This Moth... has been added to our Frequently Asked Questions section.
Update -- Eighteen checklists have been added to Bird Checklists of the United States. This resource now contains 287 checklists from 47 states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.
Update -- Range maps of butterflies occurring in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont and 30 new species photos have been added to Butterflies of the United States, increasing the number of states covered to 44. Also included are the 1997 supplemental updates to Butterflies of the Western United States.
Biological Resource -- Improving Prairie Pond Counts with Aerial Video and Global Positioning Systems examines the use of video and GPS to provide rapid and accurate assessment of pond numbers in the Prairie Pothole Region.
Biological Resource -- Impact of Red Fox Predation on the Sex Ratio of Prairie Mallards examines the role that red fox predation may play in the etiology of unbalanced sex ratios among dabbling ducks.
Biological Resource -- North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations will consolidate observations in a data base so that scientists can search for patterns and trends in type and incidence of malformations. The Web site also provides general information on this phenomenon for anyone wanting to view the locations of reported malformed amphibians, read about the possible causes, search a bibliography, view photographs of malformed amphibians, or read pertinent news articles.
Biological Resource -- Contributions of the Conservation Reserve Program to Populations of Breeding Birds in North Dakota assesses the importance of the Conservation Reserve Program by estimating changes in breeding-bird populations projected if CRP land were to revert to cultivation.
Biological Resource -- An Environmental Overview of North Dakota: Past and Present provides a comprehensive and concise overview of the natural history of North Dakota and the environmental problems that it faces.
Update -- Animal Congregations, or What Do You Call a Group Of.....? has been added to our Frequently Asked Questions section.
Update -- How Do I Care for an Abandoned Nestling? has been added to our Frequently Asked Questions section.
Update -- Feature of the Month. June is the major activity month for amphibians and reptiles in North Dakota and the northern plains. This month's featured resource, Reptiles and Amphibians of North Dakota, is designed to give the curious reader a tool to identify some of the least understood of North Dakota's wildlife species.
Biological Resource -- Establishing a Nest Box Program for American Kestrels Along an Interstate Highway provides information on the American Kestrel's life cycle and preferred habitat and prey, as well as diagrams and directions for making and mounting of nest boxes.
Biological Resource -- A primary factor limiting populations of prairie-nesting ducks is low recruitment due to predation on nesting females, eggs, and ducklings. Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management discusses strategies for managing mammalian predation on prairie-nesting ducks and issues likely to affect predation management in coming years.
Biological Resource -- Many breeding bird species have benefitted from the grassland habitats established under the Conservation Reserve Program. Dramatic Increase of Le Conte's Sparrow in Conservation Reserve Program Fields in the Northern Great Plains documents large increases in numbers of breeding pairs of the Le Conte's sparrow at selected sites throughout the Northern Great Plains.
Biological Resource -- A Checklist of Manitoba Spiders (Araneae) With Notes on Geographic Relationships provides distribution information for 483 species in 20 families of Manitoba spiders, including 139 new provincial records.
Biological Resource -- Factors Influencing Summer Breeding in Prairie Ducks demonstrates how wet weather conditions can substantially extend the duck breeding season in the Prairie Pothole Region.
Biological Resource -- Wetland Preferences of Prairie-nesting Mallards: Implications To Settling Patterns and Population Trends takes a look at wetland preferences of mallards and how settling patterns and population trends are affected by wetland availability.
Announcement -- The 1998 Swift Fox Symposium is now calling for papers for its February 18-19, 1998 meeting. Find out more about their objectives and deadlines in the Announcements section.
Annual Report -- The online version of Northern Prairie Science Center's annual report,
New Feature -- Frequently Asked Questions -- We have created a new section in the Help and Feedback page to answer some of the common questions we receive. The first entry in this section is Help...There's A Duck In My Flower Pot!, a humorous and informative page about dealing with ducks nesting in, on, or around homes.
Biological Resource -- Endangered and Threatened Species Recovery Program represents an accounting of the recovery progress for all 711 federally listed endangered and threatened species under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service occurring in the United States and Trust Territories as of September 30, 1992.
Biological Resource -- The Ring-necked Pheasant in North Dakota includes information on the history, biology, and management of this introduced and highly popular, but somewhat controversial upland game species.
Biological Resource -- Habitat Establishment, Enhancement, and Management for Forest and Grassland Birds in Illinois provides technical guidance and recommendations to resource managers, planners, and landowners in Illinois who wish to establish, enhance, and manage land for nongame forest or grassland nesting birds.
Biological Resource -- Modified Transmitter Attachment Method for Adult Ducks examines an alternative method for external attachment of transmitters that offers high retention and does not appear to affect survival of the radio-marked female or her brood.
New Feature -- Feature of the Month. Starting this month, we will select one of our resources every month based on its seasonal pertinence. Because International Migratory Bird Day is observed on May 10, Bird Checklists of the United States is this month's featured resource. Look for other Features of the Month on the first day of each month.
Biological Resource -- Eskimo Curlew: A vanishing species? details the Eskimo Curlew's history and what is known about its biology. It is compiled through observations and comments of more than 300 people who saw or talked with people who saw Eskimo Curlews and includes journal entries from more than 200 years ago.
Biological Resource -- The Cranes: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan provides a broad overview of the conservation biology of cranes and detailed individual accounts for each of the fifteen crane species. Each account includes discussion of subspecies and populations, population numbers, conservation status, historic and present distribution, distribution by country, habitat and ecology, principal threats, and current conservation measures.
Biological Resource -- The highly productive closed basins typical of the Prairie Pothole Region provide breeding and brood-rearing habitat for more than half of North America's waterfowl population. Yearly population estimates of many duck species closely track the number of wet basins within the region. Effects of Climate on Numbers of Northern Prairie Wetlands takes a look at the contribution that climate makes to wetland numbers.
Biological Resource -- Potential Effects of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases on Avian Habitats and Populations in the Northern Great Plains summarizes the impact of greenhouse gases on biotic systems, and describes potential effects on bird populations and their habitats, with emphasis on the northern Great Plains.
Biological Resource -- Snow Goose Population Problem: Part I, II and III focuses on the large and growing population of arctic-nesting snow geese, and the problems these birds are creating for all organisms that depend on fragile arctic habitats.
Biological Resource -- Wyoming Rare Plant Field Guide contains information to assist federal personnel, professional and amateur botanists, and interested lay persons in the the identification of the rarest plant species in Wyoming. Included, for each of 94 species, are color photographs, line drawings, distribution maps, and descriptive text.
Update -- Distribution and Abundance of Predators that Affect Duck Production - Prairie Pothole Region has been updated to include the entire publication. This resource summarizes information about the history and population structure of mammalian and avian predator species that affect duck production in the prairie pothole region and presents new data on the distribution and abundance of those species.
Update -- Nine checklists have been added to Bird Checklists of the United States, including one from Puerto Rico. Many of the previously available checklists have been updated.
-- Western Wetland Flora has been named one of the best education-related sites on the Web by The Education Index.
New Feature -- Because there is no accepted standard on how to cite Internet resources, we have added citation suggestions to each of our resources. Please see Citing Northern Prairie Resources for more information about this feature.
Biological Resource -- Because riparian ecosystems are structurally diverse and highly productive habitats, they play an important role in the management of wildlife. Riparian Ecosystem Creation and Restoration: A Literature Summary provides an overview of the status of riparian ecosystems in the U.S. and suggests guidelines for restoring and creating ecosystems.
Biological Resource -- Giant Moths of North Dakota takes a close look at some of the giant silk moths found in North Dakota.
Biological Resource -- Although many biologists recognize the importance of Scirpus maritimus and S. robustus as food sources for waterfowl and other wildlife, little has been published on their life histories. The Alkali (Scirpus Maritimus L.) and Saltmarsh (S. Robustus Pursh) Bulrushes: A Literature Review provides a synthesis of life histories and management assessments of alkali and saltmarsh bulrushes.
Biological Resource -- Fire In North American Wetland Ecosystems And Fire-Wildlife Relations: An Annotated Bibliography fills two important voids in the libraries of many wildlife biologists--an annotated bibliography on fire in North American wetland ecosystems and a subject index of all fire-related literature that has appeared in Wildlife Review.
Update -- Maps and information about Oecophoridae moths occurring in the western United States have been added to Moths of the United States. Additionally, 20 new color photographs have been added to this resource.
Biological Resource -- In Evaluations of Duck Habitat and Estimation of Duck Population Sizes with a Remote-Sensing-Based System, a system is described for estimating the number and area of ponds, the sizes of breeding duck populations, and the number of young ducks recruited to the population each fall in the prairie pothole region of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana.
Biological Resource -- Mallard Recruitment in the Agricultural Environment of North Dakota provides information on breeding ecology and recruitment of radio-equipped mallards in central North Dakota during 1977-80.
Biological Resource -- In Factors Associated with Duck Nest Success in the Prairie Pothole Region of Canada, nest success and recruitment of mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, northern shoveler, and northern pintail during 1982-85 are evaluated.
Biological Resource -- Nesting Ecology and Nesting Habitat Requirements of Ohio's Grassland-Nesting Birds: A Literature Review summarizes nesting habitat requirements and the effect of no management, mowing, grazing, and prescribed burning on habitat use, nesting density, and/or reproductive success of 11 grassland-nesting bird species in Ohio.
Update -- Range maps of butterfly species occurring in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia have been added to Butterflies of the United States, along with 170 new species photos.
Update -- The Northern Prairie Publications Database has been updated to include most recent articles published by Center staff.
Technical Note -- This site recently underwent a major change as we switched to a new Web server. For details about the change and specifics about the new server, please see the Technical Information on our Help & Feedback page.
Announcement -- A new employment announcement has been posted. The position is for an Ecologist at Northern Prairie Science Center. Detailed information and application instructions can be found in the Announcements section. Please note that the closing date for this position is March 19, 1997.
-- This site recently received the Editor's Choice award from Bonus.com, The SuperSite for Kids.
Biological Resource -- Migratory birds, by virtue of their mobility, have many options for selecting habitat in which to breed. Determinants of Breeding Distributions of Ducks examines settling patterns of 10 North American duck species.
Biological Resource -- Females of many duck species return to their previous breeding sites, but little is known about the effects of species, hen age, and previous breeding success of hens on return rates. These and other questions are examined in Homing and Reproductive Habitats of Mallards, Gadwalls, and Blue-winged Teal at two study sites in North Dakota.
Biological Resource -- Thirty-eight neotropical migratory birds are common in the agricultural areas of the Midwest. Most species depend on natural habitat that has slowly been declining due to agricultural practices. Management of Agricultural Landscapes for the Conservation of Neotropical Migratory Birds contains guidelines that land managers can follow to increase habitat and nesting cover for these birds.
Biological Resource -- Population declines in some species of ducks in North America have prompted a closer look at the management of habitat for breeding ducks. A procedure for prioritizing areas for duck management on the breeding grounds, based on potential breeding duck numbers, is described in Using Landscape Information Approaches to Increase Duck Recruitment in the Prairie Pothole Region.
Announcement -- The Sun Country recently ran an article about researchers at Northern Prairie who will be presenting information at the first North American Duck Symposium. You can read the article in the Announcements section.
New Feature -- Check out our Update Mailing List if you wish to be automatically informed of future updates to our site.
Biological Resource -- Prairie Basin Wetlands of the Dakotas: A Community Profile provides a description of the biotic and abiotic settings and features of the most common kinds of wetlands found in the portion of the Prairie Pothole Region that lies in the Dakotas, and outlines the natural and manmade ecological processes that affect these wetlands.
Biological Resource -- Effects of Weather on Ducks quantifies relations between weather and several aspects of the breeding biology of four duck species. Data are from J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge and Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center's Woodworth Station.
Biological Resource -- Have you ever wondered how old your deer is? How Old is My Deer? outlines the basics for determining deer age by the wear and development of their teeth.
Biological Resource -- Analyses of banding data reveal that large numbers of ducks die each year from causes other than hunting. Red Fox Predation on Breeding Ducks in Midcontinent North America describes the profound effect that red fox predation has upon North America's nesting ducks.
Update -- Information concerning a dedicated poster session for the GIS/Remote Sensing Working Group of The Wildlife Society's Annual Meeting has been added to the Wildlife Telemetry Forum announcement.
Update -- Technical Information about our site, located in our Help and Feedback section, has been updated.
Update -- Thirty new checklists have been added to Bird Checklists of the United States, including a checklist for the Virgin Islands. This resource now contains 260 checklists from 47 states and territories.
This site has received a four-star rating from NetGuide, which qualifies it as one of their Gold Sites. You can read Northern Prairie's review by visiting NetGuide's web site.
Director Ron Kirby's message -- Those of you who communicate with Northern Prairie staff via the telephone may be experiencing difficulties getting through. Read Director Ron Kirby's message about our phone problems, found in the Announcements page.
Biological Resource -- Determining the incubation stage of bird eggs can provide important information to investigators conducting nesting studies. The use of candlers in the field to determine the incubation stage in eggs of Lark Buntings (Calamospiza melanocorys) and other small birds is described in Using Candlers to Determine the Incubation Stage of Passerine Eggs.
Biological Resource -- Western Wetland Flora is a field guide containing color photographs, line drawings, distinquishing features, range maps, and textual descriptions for 300 species of wetland plants. An identification key and illustrated glossary are included.
Biological Resource -- Integrated Management of the Greater Prairie Chicken and Livestock on the Sheyenne National Grassland provides background information for use in developing management standards and guidelines to ensure the long-term viability of the resident prairie chickens in conjunction with livestock grazing on the Sheyenne National Grasslands in southeastern North Dakota.
Biological Resource -- Recovery Program: Endangered and Threatened Species, 1994 is a Report to Congress representing an accounting of the recovery progress for all federally listed endangered and threatened species under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service occurring in the United States and Trust Territories as of September 30, 1994.
Biological Resource -- Species, Age and Sex Identification of Ducks Using Wing Plumage contains procedures used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to determine the species, sex and age composition of the harvest of North American ducks using detached wings contributed by hunters. The resource contains photos and an identification key for 32 species of ducks.
Biological Resource -- North Dakota is a place where east meets west and north meets south. It has diverse flora and fauna, with species ranging in abundance from very common to extremely rare. The Rare Ones: The Uncommon Floral and Faunal Components of North Dakota contains photos and information about many of these species along with basic information about endangered and rare species in general.
Biological Resource -- Another in our series of living bibliographies, Conservation Reserve Program Bibliography contains citations pertaining to the effects of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on wildlife habitat.
Biological Resource -- Waterfowl have received less attention from community ecologists than have many other groups of birds. Waterfowl Communities in the Northern Plains addresses some of the influences on waterfowl communities in a mixed-grass prairie pothole habitat.
Biological Resource -- Clams? In North Dakota? Those mouthwatering, saltwater delicacies enjoyed daily by coastal dwelling friends and relatives? In North Dakota, the only place to find these clams, it seems, is at restaurants. However, North Dakota has many freshwater mussels, a fact which is discussed in The Clamor Over Clams.
Biological Resource -- Amphibians have received increased attention in recent years from the scientific community and general public alike. Surveys Of Calling Amphibians In North Dakota describes the results of a 1995 roadside survey of calling amphibians along 44 routes in North Dakota.
Biological Resource -- Riparian communities, vegetative zones associated with rivers and streams, provide enormous benefits for agriculture, recreation and other economic activities because of their high levels of animal and plant diversity. Riparian Communities and Related Topics: An Annotated Bibliography, is intended to assist those interested in riparian communities, particularly in the western United States.
Special Recognition -- Many of the resources on this site have been created in cooperation with the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. An index of these resources, North Dakota Game and Fish Resources, can be found on the Resources page.
Update -- Approximately forty new checklists and two new states have been added to Bird Checklists of the United States. This resource now contains 225 checklists from 46 states.
Employment Announcement -- The official announcement for 1997 seasonal employment opportunities has been posted to the Announcements page. Please note that applications must be submitted between 12/02/96 and 12/16/96.
Employment Announcement -- Information about 1997 seasonal employment opportunities at Northern Prairie has been posted to the Announcements page.
Announcement -- New information about the Wildlife Telemetry Forum to be held in Colorado in September, 1997 has been added to the Announcements section.
Biological Resource -- One of the most serious threats to the integrity of natural systems, rare communities and species, and animal habitat is the invasion of non-indigenous plants. Species Abstracts of Highly Disruptive Exotic Plants contains literature reviews and information on the taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and control options for a number of these types of plants in three Great Plains national parks.
Biological Resource -- Butterflies of Glacier National Park, Montana is the result of three summers' worth of sampling butterfly species diversity in Glacier National Park, Montana.
Update -- Butterfly Surveys at Selected Sites in North Dakota has been updated to include results of surveys conducted in 1996 and contains information about the first reported occurrence of the Woodland Skipper in North Dakota.
Biological Resource -- A guide to some of North Dakota's most treasured undeveloped areas, Natural Areas of North Dakota contains locations and descriptions of 19 publicly-accessable natural areas.
Biological Resource -- Providing nesting areas, feeding, and watching wildlife are popular and enjoyable activities in North Dakota. Building Nest Structures, Feeders, and Photo Blinds for North Dakota Wildlife provides how-to information for constructing these devices at minimal expense.
Biological Resource -- Marshbirds and Shorebirds of North Dakota contains photos and species descriptions of twenty wetland birds.
Update -- New entries have been added to the Bibliography of Northern Pintails.
Technical -- This site is now using client side imagemaps. Those users with browsers that support this feature will find our clickable maps much faster. Users with browsers that do not support client side imagemaps will be unaffected by this change.
Biological Resource -- A new living bibliography, Wetland Restoration Bibliography, is intended to provide scientists, managers, students, and policy-makers with ready access to current information on wetland restoration. Users are encouraged to add new entries to ensure that this resource is kept current.
Biological Resource -- Scent-station surveys are an alternative method of tracking changes in carnivore numbers. Rather than counting animals, observers record visits by carnivores to scented baits. The proportion of baits visited is assumed to reflect carnivore abundance. Minnesota Carnivore Population Index presents the results of these surveys in Minnesota from 1986 to the present.
Biological Resource -- Maps of Distribution and Abundance of Selected Species of Birds on Uncultivated Native Upland Grasslands and Shrubsteppe in the Northern Great Plains is intended to provide ecologists and ornithologists with information on areas of abundance of some of the more important members of the avifauna which use grasslands. Maps are provided for 20 species of birds.
Update -- Approximately thirty checklists from several states have been added to Bird Checklists of the United States. A Master Table of Contents has been added to facilitate access to the various checklists.
Update -- Species photos have been added to Mollusks of North Dakota.
Update -- Twenty-eight new photos have been added to Moths of the USA bringing the total to 137.
Information -- Joint Venture Directory -- Browse or search the five North American Waterfowl Management Plan joint venture directories. Entries include names, phone numbers, and addresses of members.
Help -- We have standardized the interface to all of our searchable resources. Search Instructions can now be found in our Help and Feedback section.
Employment Announcements -- Two new employment announcements have been posted. The positions are for a Statistician and a Wildlife Biologist at Northern Prairie Science Center. Detailed information and application instructions can be found in the Announcements section. Please note that the closing date for each position is October 11
Announcement -- The Jamestown Sun recently ran an article about Northern Prairie's duck banding effort. You can read the article in the Announcements section.
Announcement -- Many Northern Prairie staff members have been enthusiastically volunteering evening, late-night and weekend hours to assist with the Central Flyway Duck-banding Project. Major cooperators in the project are the Central Flyway Council, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ducks Unlimited, and state game and fish departments from North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana. You can learn more about this effort on the Announcements page.
Biological Resource -- The first in a new series of living bibliographies at this site, Savanna Restoration Bibliography is the start of a bibliography on the subject of savannas. An important feature of living bibliographies is that they can be easily added to and updated by users, thereby allowing the bibliographies to remain current and comprehensive with little maintenance.
Update -- Species maps for Ohio, Georgia, West Virginia, Indiana, Kentucky, and Mississippi have been added to Butterflies of the United States, along with sixty new species photos.
Biological Resource -- The Conservation Reserve Program, enacted in 1985, has had a favorable effect on both game and nongame birds. The Conservation Reserve Program -- Good For Birds of Many Feathers is based on a popular article that appeared in North Dakota Outdoors in August 1993.
Biological Resource -- Ecological Studies at the Woodworth Study Area is a series of short articles from a recent symposium concerning research done at the Woodworth Study Area since 1965.
Biological Resource -- The first of two reports to Congress, Wetlands Losses in the United States -- 1780's to 1980's, produced by the National Wetlands Inventory, documents the historical wetland losses that occurred from colonial times through the 1980's.
Update -- Range maps and additional species photos and drawings have been added to North Dakota Endangered, Threatened and Candidate Species -- 1995. In addition, recent changes to the list of candidate species are noted. This resource has also been moved from the Other Biological Data section to Distribution Data on the Biological Resources Page.
Update -- Fifty new species photos have been added to the Moths of the United States. Names of some species have been changed to conform with the current authority for names of North American Saturniidae.
Biological Resources -- The Bald Eagle in Oklahoma and Oklahoma's Tropical Ambassador -- The Scissor-tailed Flycatcher are two new resources from the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation.
Biological Resource -- Sago Pondweed is very important world-wide to staging and migrant waterfowl, but abundance of sago has declined drastically in many wetlands. Sago Pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.): A Literature Review is a synthesis of available information on sago that can be used to properly protect and manage this important aquatic plant.
Biological Resource -- Influences of Waterfowl Management on Nongame Birds: The North Dakota Experience is a web version of a published paper that describes the process used to develop Wildlife Management Practices in North Dakota -- Effects on Nongame Birds.
Update -- The Northern Prairie Publications Database has been updated to include articles published by Center staff in the past three months.
Biological Resources -- Three new resources are presented courtesy of the Oklahama Department of Wildlife Conservation: Build a Birdhouse, Oklahoma Bats...Coming Out of the Dark, and Oklahoma's Summer Jewels -- Ruby-throated Hummingbirds. Each is based on a short but easy-to-follow and information-packed brochure which should be of interest not only to Oklahomans but to wildlife enthusiasts in general.
Biological Resource -- North Dakota Endangered, Threatened and Candidate Species -- 1995 contains information on 45 Federally listed endangered, threatened and candidate species in 1995.
Update -- Reptiles and Amphibians of North Dakota has been given a facelift that will make it easier for users to navigate.
Biological Resource -- Fragile Legacy -- Endangered, Threatened and Rare Species of South Dakota is based on a popular South Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks booklet and contains life history and distribution information along with color photos for 36 species of birds, fishes, insects, reptiles and mammals.
Biological Resource -- Butterfly Surveys at Selected Sites in North Dakota lists the results of comprehensive, site-specific butterfly surveys at 6 sites throughout North Dakota.
Update -- Species distribution maps for California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington have been added to Butterflies of the United States, bringing the total number of states included to 25.
Update -- A number of new checklists have been added to Bird Checklists of the United States, along with general information about the project and a form for sending in reports of new species.
Employment Announcement -- Information about a Statistician position at Northern Prairie has been posted to the Announcements page.
Biological Resource -- Coyotes are moving eastward in North Dakota and displacing fox in their wake. In Coyotes on the Move, reasons for this change, and how the change has affected the density and relative distribution of fox are explored.
Biological Resource -- Waterfowl managers attempting to determine predator species responsible for destructions of waterfowl nests have little information on which to base decisions. Interpreting Evidence of Depredation Found at Duck Nests provides a source of factual information concerning patterns of nest depredations by principal predator species affecting duck nest success in the Prairie Pothole Region. NOTE: This resource has been updated and subsequently replaced with more up-to-date information.
Update -- In addition to adding more than 75 color species photos to Butterflies of the United States, data for 6 new states have been added, bringing the total number of states to 21.
Update -- Native Wildflowers of the North Dakota Grasslands has been updated to include the 15th and final series of Hal Kantrud's popular articles. Fifteen more species have been added for a current total of 239.
Biological Resource -- Hawks, Eagles, and Falcons of North Dakota is based on a North Dakota Game and Fish Department publication and includes color photos and basic information on these interesting birds.
Biological Resource -- Wigeongrass is a very important plant as a food for waterfowl. Wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima L.) -- Literature Review outlines the life history and management of R. maritima, probably the most important of all Ruppia taxa for wildlife, at least in the Northern Hemisphere.
Update -- Moths of the United States -- Color photos now accompany distribution maps for many species.
Outside Links -- Listings of Internet sites that may be of interest to users of this site are now available on the Biological Resources main page. They are categorized taxonomically and geographically using the same system as resources on this site.
Update -- Bird Checklists of the United States -- In addition to adding checklists in a number of new states, we have added links to state checklists, where available.
Announcement -- A request for proposals to study amphibians and reptiles of the Great Plains can be found in the Announcements section. Application deadline is July 1, 1996.
Weekly Highlights -- Each week we will post highlights of the previous week's happenings at Northern Prairie to the Announcements page. Highights will include information such as staff publications, project updates and new starts, and significant meetings.
Employment Announcement -- The Central Flyway Waterfowl Council is accepting applications for temporary seasonal aides to help implement a duck banding program. Interested persons can find details on our Announcements page. Deadline for applications is May 1, 1996.
Update -- New entries have been added to the Bibliography for Lesser Scaup and Bibliography of Northern Pintails.
Biological Resource -- Ducks at a Distance -- This popular U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service publication provides tips for identifying various species of waterfowl on the wing.
Biological Resource -- For biologists conducting native vegetation research or management in North Dakota and the northern Great Plains, we offer North Dakota Vegetation Bibliography, a searchable database of pertinent literature.
Biological Resource -- A searchable database, Northern Prairie Herbarium, allows you to browse through the nearly 6,000 specimens found in Northern Prairie's nationally recognized herbarium.
Biological Resource -- Based on a publication by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Nest Structures for Ducks and Geese provides guidelines for constructing, placing, and maintaining nest structures for Canada geese, mallards, and wood ducks.
Update -- Butterflies of the United States -- Distribution maps for two new states, Texas and New Mexico, are now available.
Update -- Technical Information, located in our Help and Feedback section, has been updated.
Update -- Northern Prairie Publications Database has been updated to include publications from the past several months.
Biological Resource -- Gray Wolf Occurrences in the Dakotas documents the occurrence of wolves in the nonforested regions of the Dakotas and the potential for recolonization of the region.
Biological Resource -- Utilizing our popular "bird checklist" format, Fishes of the Dakotas provides information about the 100+ species of fish known to occur in North and South Dakota.
Biological Resource -- Control of Invasive Exotic Plants in the Great Plains, a searchable database, provides citations and summaries of pertinent literature.
Biological Resource -- Lakes and riverine impoundments that contain an abundance of American Wildcelery are favored by canvasback ducks and other waterfowl species as feeding areas during migration. In American Wildcelery Restoration, information on the ecology of American Wildcelery is summarized to serve as a guide for potential wetland restoration projects.
Biological Resource -- Platte River Ecosystem Resources and Management, previously unpublished, discusses ecosystem resources in the Platte River area and describes some impacts of human development on habitats and species. A series of management alternatives that should be considered to maintain the integrity of the ecosystem is presented.
Update -- Butterflies of the United States has undergone a major update. In addition to increasing the number of states from 7 to 14, we have enhanced the appearance of the maps themselves and added aggregate maps of the United States.
Biological Resource -- Waterfowl Identification in the Central Flyway, a very popular booklet published by the Central Flyway Waterfowl Council, features color illustrations and descriptions of distinguishing characteristics of 38 species of waterfowl.
Biological Resource -- Upland Game Bird Identification, a basic guide for aging and sexing game birds in hand, contains closeup photos and step by step instructions to aid both experienced and beginner hunters.
Biological Resources -- Two new popular resources, Owls of North Dakota and Ruby-Throated Hummingbird in North Dakota, are presented courtesy of the North Dakota Game and Fish Department.
Update --Bird checklists from Region 3, Great Lakes-Big Rivers, have been added to Bird Checklists of the United States.
Announcements -- An employment announcement has been posted for a librarian vacancy. Also, information about an upcoming symposium concerning Northern Prairie's Woodworth Field Station has been added. Further information can be found on the Announcements page.
Biological Resources -- Two great new non-technical resources are presented courtesy of the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. Songbirds of North Dakota and North Dakota's Endangered and Threatened Species both offer color photos and distribution maps along with 3-4 paragraphs of easy-to-understand text about the species.
Biological Resource -- Establishment of Seeded Grasslands for Wildlife Habitat in the Prairie Pothole Region is a published report describing techniques for establishing seeded grasslands on cultivated soils to provide wildlife habitat within the glaciated prairie pothole region in the north-central United States.
Update -- Checklists from Region 2 (Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Arizona) have been added to Bird Checklists of the United States.
Update -- Midwestern Wetland Flora now has distribution maps for all plant species.
Biological Resource -- Bird checklists serve as a great predictive guide to the birds that occur within a particular region during a particular season. In Bird Checklists of the United States we begin our first of a series of checklists from National Wildlife Refuges around the entire nation. We have started with the northern Great Plains states with future plans to include checklists from refuges in the rest of the country.
Biological Resource -- A colorful new resource, Midwestern Wetland Flora is a field guide for both novices and experts and contains 300 species of wetland plants. An Identification Key is given to help identify unknown plants and a very useful Illustrated Glossary is presented. Each plant contains at least one color photo, a line drawing, and textual information about habitats, flowering dates, and distinguishing marks. Distribution maps are in preparation and will be provided in the near future.
Biological Resource -- Human Disturbances to Waterfowl -- This bibliography contains excerpts or annotations from 211 articles that contain information about the effects of human disturbances on waterfowl. It is browseable by author, species, subject, and geography.
Note -- Because of the government shutdowns, this site has not been updated for some time. Thanks for your understanding.
Biological Resource -- The Platte River Ecology Study is an older (1981) report, but is filled with important information about the role of the Platte River Valley in Nebraska with respect to midcontinent migratory bird populations.
Biological Resource -- Procedures for conducting duck nesting studies are described in Techniques for Studying Nest Success of Ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region. Some topics include flushing hens with vehicle drags, recording nest data, and calculating nest success rates.
Biological Resource -- Distribution maps of South Dakota breeding birds can be found in this on-line version of The South Dakota Breeding Bird Atlas.
Biological Resource -- Another useful tool, Prescribed Burning Guidelines in the Northern Great Plains, gives state-of-the-art guidelines for conducting prescribed burns. It is designed especially for resource managers and "fire bosses" and will be useful for researchers and other interested persons.
Biological Resource -- A searchable bibliography, Bibliography for Aquatic Plants.
Biological Resource -- The Glossary of Avian Terms has been given a much-needed facelift.
Navigate by Geography -- You can now navigate our biological resources according to the geographic region or state they pertain to. You can find Navigate by Geography under the Biological Resources page.
Employment Announcement -- Application instructions for 1996 seasonal positions at Northern Prairie can be found on the Seasonal Employment page in the Announcements section.
Biological Resource -- Presettlement Wildlife and Habitat of Montana: An Overview is a new resource of interest to both biologists and historians. In it you will find bibliographies and maps of early expeditions into Montana.
Help Subject -- If you are having trouble viewing some of the graphics on this site please read this note about GIF and JPEG images in the Help & Feedback section.
Email Addresses -- Looking for the email address of a Northern Prairie staff member? You can now find it on the staff listing page under NPSC Information.
Announcement -- A request for proposals to study amphibians and reptiles of the Great Plains is now available in the Announcements section.
Biological Resource -- Breeding Birds of the Platte River Valley gives detailed information and distribution maps for 142 species of breeding birds occurring in this "birdwatcher's paradise" in Nebraska.
Biological Resources -- Locating and Managing Peninsulas for Nesting Ducks and Locating, Constructing, and Managing Islands for Nesting Waterfowl provide how-to information for waterfowl managers wanting to enhance productivity of ducks through the use of peninsulas and islands.
New Address -- Our new address, http://www.npsc.nbs.gov, is finally active. Please use this new address in your bookmark files.
This site has been ranked in the top 5% of all web sites on the Internet by Pointcom.
Northern Prairie Studies -- Interested in what we do here at Northern Prairie? Check out two new documents detailing most of the past and current studies at the Center. Studies of Migratory Birds and Studies of Wetlands and Aquatic Ecosystems are located under the Northern Prairie Information main page.
Imagemap Interface -- Moths of the United States and Butterflies of the United States now have a user interface allowing you to navigate via a clickable map of the United States.
Bibliographies -- We have added search capability to three of our bibliographies: Bibliography for Lesser Scaup, Bibliography of Northern Pintails, and Bibliography of Fisheries Biology in North and South Dakota. You can find them under Biological Resources.
Publications Database -- The entire text of the Northern Prairie Publications Database can now be downloaded and searched locally using an ASCII text editor.
Announcement -- Added an announcement about the 1997 Forum on Wildlife Telemetry.
Announcement -- Added an announcement about an upcoming seminar entitled "Ecological Dynamics of Restored Wetlands", which will be held on October 12. See the Announcements section for details.
Acknowledgments -- We have compiled a list of everyone who has contributed material to this site and those who helped compile that material into the format you see here. You can find the list on the Acknowledgments page in the Help & Feedback section.
Biological Resources -- Added three new new bibliographies available for downloading: Bibliography for Lesser Scaup, Bibliography of Northern Pintails, and Bibliography of Fisheries Biology in North and South Dakota
Biological Resource -- Added A Review of Wildlife Management Practices in North Dakota : Effects on Nongame Bird Populations and Habitats, a resource that is difficult to obtain in paper copy.
WAIS -- All of our searchable indexes are now on-site. While this does not directly affect our users, it means that we will be able to add search capability to many existing resources, especially bibliographies, in the near future.
Announcement -- Added an announcement about a small grants program for projects related to amphibians and reptiles in the Great Plains region. See the Announcements section for details.
Biological Resource -- Native Wildflowers of the North Dakota Grasslands has been updated from 50 to the complete 225 species.
Navigate by Taxa -- You can now navigate the biological resources by taxonomic category. Check out the link at the top of the Biological Resources main page.
Tags -- There are now three tags marking resources: New resources, Non-Technical resources, and Searchable Databases. See the Biological Resources main page for details.
Guestbook -- You can now leave comments and suggestions by signing our guestbook. Please feel free to leave a link to your home page if you feel others using this site might be interested.
Mail Form -- You can also send comments and questions to firstname.lastname@example.org easier with this new form.
New Biological Resource -- Butterflies of the United States is now active under distribution data.
Technical Information -- Information about our server and some statistics about this site have been added to the Help & Feedback section.
Legends -- All resources with maps associated with them should now have a legend at the top of their introductory page.
References -- All citations should now be in a more standard format.
Northern Prairie's WWW site is announced. Please see the press release in the Announcements section.