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Nongame Birds, Small Mammals, Herptiles, Fishes:
Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, 1995-1996

Appendix A

Complete vertebrate list of resident and breeding species at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

Sand Lake NWR possesses habitat for many different species of vertebrates. The following list includes all of the resident and breeding vertebrates on the refuge inclusive of the past two decades. This comprehensive list includes 5 classes, 32 orders, 160 genera, and 202 species of which 6 were amphibian, 5 reptile, 127 bird, 34 mammal, and 30 fish species. This complete list of vertebrates includes observations made from this inventory, refuge narratives and trapping records, personal communications, and other independent observers. Taxonomic order and names follow Banks et al. (1987).

Classes: Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia, Osteichthyes


Class Amphibia
	Order Caudata
		Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus)
		Tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum)
	Order Anura
		Great Plains toad (Bufo cognatus)
		Canadian toad (B. hemiophrys)
		Western chorus frog (Pseudoacris triseriata)
		Northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens)
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Class Reptilia
	Order Testudines
		Snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina)
		Western painted turtle (Chrysemys picta)
	Order Squamata
		Northern prairie skink (Eumeces septentrionalis)
		Northern red-bellied snake (Storeria occipitomaculata)
		Plains garter snake (Thamnophis radix)
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Class Aves
	Order Podicepidiformes
		Western grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis)
		Clark's grebe (A. clarkii)
		Eared grebe (Podiceps nigricolis)
		Pied-billed grebe (Podylimbus podiceps)
	Order Pelicaniformes
		American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrocephalus)
		Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)
	Order Ciconiformes
		Great blue heron (Ardea herodias)
		Great egret (A. alba)
		American bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus)
		Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis)
		Green-backed heron (Boturides striatus)
		Little blue heron (Egretta caerulea)
		Snowy egret (E. thula)
		Least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis)
		Black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)
		White-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi)
	Order Anseriformes
		Wood duck (Aix sponsa)
		Northern pintail (Anas acuta)
		American wigeon (A. americana)
		Northern shoveler (A. clypeata)
		Green-winged teal (A. crecca)
		Blue-winged teal (A. discors)
		Mallard (A. platyrhyncos)
		American black duck (A. rubripes)
		Gadwall (A. strepera)
		Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis)
		Redhead (A. americana)
		Canvasback (A. vallisineria)
		Canada goose (Branta canadensis)
		Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola)
		Hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus)
		Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)
	Order Falconiformes
		Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii)
		Sharp-shinned hawk (A. striatus)
		Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)
		Swainson's hawk (B. swanisoni)
		Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus)
		American kestrel (Falco sparverius)
	Order Galliformes
		Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)
		Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus)
		Gray partridge (Perdix perdix)
	Order Gruiformes
		American coot (Fulica americana)
		Common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus)
		Sora (Porzana carolina)
		Virginia rail (Rallus limicola)
	Order Charadriifomes
		Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)
		Upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda)
		Spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia)
		Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus)
		Marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa)
		American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)
		Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor)
		Ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis)
		Franklin's gull (L. pipixcan)
		Black tern (Chlidonias niger)
		Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri)
		Common tern (S. hirundo)
	Order Columbiformes
		Rock dove (Columba livia)
		Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura)
	Order Cuculiformes
		Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus)
		Black-billed cuckoo (C. erythropthalmus)
	Order Strigiformes
		Long-eared owl (Asio otus)
		Short-eared owl (A. flammeus)
		Eastern screech owl (Otus asio)
		Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus)
	Order Caprimulgiformes
		Common nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)
	Order Apodiformes
		Chimney swift (Chaetura pelagica)
	Order Coraciiformes
		Belted kingfisher (Ceryle alycon)
	Order Piciformes
		Northern flicker (Colaptes auratus)
		Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)
		Downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens)	
		Hairy woodpecker (P. villosus)
	Order Passeriformes
		Eastern wood-pewee (Contopus virens)
		Least flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)
		Willow flycatcher (E. traillii)
		Eastern phoebe (Sayornis phoebe)
		Eastern kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)
		Western kingbird (T. vericalis)
		Horned lark (Eremophila alpestris)
		Cliff swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota)
		Barn swallow (H. rustica)
		Purple martin (Progne subis)
		Bank swallow (Riparia riparia)
		Northern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis)
		Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)
		American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
		Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata)
		Black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus)
		White-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis)
		Marsh wren (Cistothorus palustris)
		Sedge wren (C. platensis)
		House wren (Troglodytes aedon)
		American robin (Turdus migratorius)
		Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis)
		Gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis)
		Brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)
		Cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)
		Loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)
		European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
		Warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus)
		Red-eyed vireo (V. olivaceous)
		Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia)
		Common yellowthroat (Geothylpis trichas)
		Dickcissel (Spiza americana)
		Sharp-tailed sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus)
		LeConte's sparrow (A. leconteii)
		Grasshopper sparrow (A. savannarum)
		Chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus)
		Lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus)
		Swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana)
		Song sparrow (M. melodia)
		Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis)
		Vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus)
		Clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida)
		Field sparrow (S. pusilla)
		Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)
		Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)
		Brewer's blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus)	
		Northern oriole (Icterus galbula)
		Orchard oriole (I. spurius)
		Brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater)
		Common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)
		Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
		Yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus)
		American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis)
		House finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)
		House sparrow (Passer domesticus)
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Class Mammalia
	Order Marsupialia
		Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginianus)
	Order Insectivora
		Northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda)
		Masked shrew (Sorex cinereus)
	Order Chiroptera
		Hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus)
	Order Carnivora
		Coyote (Canis latrans)
		Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)
		Raccoon (Procyon lotor)
		Long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata)
		Least weasel (M. nivalis)
		Mink (M. vison)
		Badger (Taxidea taxus)
		Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)
		Spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius)
	Order Artiodactyla	
		White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
	Order Rodentia
		Woodchuck (Marmota monax)
		Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger)
		Franklin's ground squirrel (Spermophilus franklinii)
		Richardson's ground squirrel (S. richardsonii)
		Thirteen-lined ground squirrel (S. tridecemlineatus)
		Plains pocket gopher (Geomys bursarius)
		Northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides)
		Plains pocket mouse (Perognathus flavescens)
		Beaver (Castor canadensis)
		Northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster)
		White-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)
		Deer mouse (P. maniculatus)
		Western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis)
		Meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus)
		Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)
		House mouse (Mus musculus)
		Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus)
		Meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius)
		White-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii)
		Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus)
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Class Osteichthyes
	Order Lepisosteiformes
		Shortnose gar (Lepisosteus platostomus)
	Order Salmoniformes
		Northern pike (Esox lucius)
	Order Cypriniformes
		Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
		Brassy minnow (Hybognathus hankinsoni)
		Golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)
		Common shiner (Luxilus cornutus)
		Spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius)
		Red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis)
		Sand shiner (Notropis stramineus)
		Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)
		Creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus)
		River carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio)
		White sucker (Catostomus commersoni)
		Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus)
	Order Siluriformes
		Black bullhead (Ameiurus melas)
		Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
		Tadpole madtom (Noturus gyrinus)
	Order Gasterosteiformes
		Brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans)
	Order Perciformes
		Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)
		Pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus)
		Orangespotted sunfish (L. humilis)
		Bluegill (L. macrochirus)
		Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)
		Largemouth bass (M. salmoides)
		White crappie (Pomoxis annularis)
		Black crappie (P. nigromaculatus)
		Iowa darter (Etheostoma exile)
		Johnny darter (E. nigrum)
		Yellow perch (Perca flavescens)
		Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum)
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