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A Critique of Wildlife Radio-tracking
and its Use in National Parks

Appendix B

General Websites Offering Wildlife Software Packages and Links
This site is beneficial for assessing what packages are available ranging from population analysis, home range analysis, statistical packages, etc. Corresponding links are provided.
Ecological Software Solutions provides software products for Biology, Ecology, Wildlife & Fisheries, Forestry, Geography, and Other Environmental Sciences.

Home Range Analysis Software:
This web page is an Ecology software server with related links for home range analysis.

Examples include:

Antelope — performs spatial statistics on data generated by mapping individuals in a population or from following a radio-tracked individual over time. It analyzes x,y data (not x,y,z) but accepts text files with additional columns which might be used to focus on subsets of the data.

Calhome — allows the user to pick from many home range analysis methods: minimum convex polygon, bivariate normal, harmonic mean, and adaptive kernel.

Dixon — uses a harmonic mean analysis as its method of finding the home range of an animal. It requires a math coprocessor.

HomeRange — primarily for use in the analysis of spatial data in animal behavior. This program has modules adapted from the Antelope program.

Home Ranger — calculates fixed or adaptive kernel home ranges of animals from radio-telemetry data. The program can also calculate standard error and bias in home range estimates by bootstrapping data and it can estimate effects of decretization (rounding) errors in telemetry data.

Kernelhr — performs kernel based estimates of two dimensional (bivariate) data. It is specifically designed for home range and population/species range analysis, but works well for any two dimensional data. Users may select between output of density and utilization distribution, change the size of the smoothing parameter and grid, and output values at the observation or on a grid.

Ulysses — a Mathematica implementation of home range estimation. Methods include adaptive kernel, tessellation, and minimum convex polygon (MCP).

Wildtrak — developed for the analysis of radio-tracking or other locational data for Macintosh computers. This program has many features including polygon and grid cell analyses for data description, a means to analyze both speed and distance of movement, and the analysis of interactions between animals. (For more Wildtrak info see also
ESRI maintains a free software page, with downloads including the HRE (home range extension - see also and reference links on GIS topics. The Animal Movement extension in ARCVIEW allows for spatial processing of location point data linked to various layers (such as topographic or attribute data layers).
Locate II - a DOS-based program to triangulate radiotelemetry bearings and calculate error ellipses. This replaces manually drawing bearings on maps and guesstimating where animals are located. It was published commercially by Pacer Computer Software, but as of June 2000 has been released into the public domain.
This web site offers free downloads of wildlife software including packages such as:

Home Range Software: Antelope, Calhome, Dixon, Homer, Kernelhr, Mcpaal, Wildtrak, Ranges V

Population Parameter Analysis Software:
This site is provides access to software for the analysis of fish and wildlife populations using marking and sighting methods such as POPAN-5, POPAN-6, SMOLT, and EAGLES.
This site offers population analysis software including:

BROWNIE computes survival estimates from banding (ringing) recovery data from young and adult animals.

Program MARK, a Windows 95, 98, or NT program, provides parameter estimates from marked animals when they are re-encountered at a later time. Re-encounters can be from dead recoveries (e.g., the animal is harvested), live recaptures (e.g. the animal is re-trapped or re-sighted), radio tracking, or from some combination of these sources of re-encounters.

CAPTURE computes tests to select a model from 11 possible models, and then the population estimate for capture-recapture data on closed populations.

DISTANCE provides an analysis of distance sampling data to estimate density and abundance of a population.

NOREMARK computes estimates of population size for a population with a known number of marked animals and 1 or more resighting occasions. Four different estimators are provided: joint hypergeometric maximum likelihood, immigration/emigration joint maximum likelihood, Minta-Mangel bootstrap procedure, and Bowden's estimator. Simulation procedures for determining estimator performance and necessary sample sizes are also provided.

RELEASE computes survival estimates and goodness-of-fit tests for a large class of survival experiments based on capture-recapture of marked populations. The general model is the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model for each experimental group (survival and capture probabilities different for each group), with a progression of submodels to the null model of the same survival and capture probabilities for all groups.

SURVIV is a FORTRAN code to compute survival estimates from general multinomial models. To run this program, you must have a FORTRAN compiler, because the model must be compiled into the SURVIV executable.
This web site offers free downloads of wildlife software including packages such as:

Population software: Bandops, Bandzip, Biotools, Brownie, Capture, Comm, Contrast, Estimate, Jolly, Jollyage, Populus, Release, Surge, Uindex4S
RAMAS software is for building ecological models linking landscape data (GIS) with population viability analysis. RAMAS programs incorporate species-specific data to predict the future changes in the population and assess the risk of population extinction or explosion and chances of recovery from a disturbance.

Radio-telemetry and Habitat Usage Software:
This web site offers free downloads of wildlife software including packages including:

Radio-telemetry software:

Habitat usage software: MacComp, Biopak

For more information on specific radio-telemetry software programs see:

White, G. C., and R. A. Garrott. 1990. Analysis of wildlife radio-tracking data. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 383 pp.

Previous Section -- Appendix A - Radio Telemetry Equipment Suppliers
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Next Section -- Appendix C - Scientific Names

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