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North Dakota's

Federally Listed Endangered, Threatened, and Candidate Species – 1995

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Bismarck, North Dakota

This resource gives information and, where available, a photograph for each of the endangered, threatened and candidate species of North Dakota. In addition, the bottom of this page contains general information about the U.S. Endangered Species Act which was passed in 1973.

The North Dakota Field Office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service also makes available 3 related teaching kits free of charge. These kits include such things as videos, computer disks, puzzles, and other group activities. See the Teaching Kits page for information about how teachers can obtain these kits for their classrooms.

This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1995.  North Dakota's federally 
     listed endangered, threatened, and candidate species - 1995.  
     U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, ND.  42pp.  
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1995.  North Dakota's federally 
     listed endangered, threatened, and candidate species - 1995.  
     U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, ND.  Jamestown, ND: 
     Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     (Version 16JUL97).

Least Tern (Sterna antillarum)
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
Whooping Crane (Grus americana)
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum)
Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus)
Western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugea)
Black Tern (Chlidonias niger)
Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii)
Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)
Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)
Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis)

Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)
Blue Sucker (Cycleptus elongatus)
Flathead Chub (Platygobio gracilis)
Sicklefin Chub (Macrhybopsis meeki)
Sturgeon Chub (Macrhybopsis gelida)
Greater Redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi)
Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula)
Western Silvery Minnow (Hybognathus argyritis)
Plains Minnow (Hybognathus placitus)

False Map Turtle (Graptemys pseudogeographica pseudogeographica)
Eastern Short-Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma douglassii brevirostra)
Northern Sagebrush Lizard (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus)

Black-Footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes)
Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)
Swift Fox (Vulpes velox)
Lynx (Felis lynx)
Wolverine (Gulo gulo)
Pale Townsend's Big-Eared Bat (Plecotus townsendii pallescens)
Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis evotis)
Long-Legged Myotis (Myotis volans)
Small-Footed Myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum)

Western Prairie Fringed Orchid (Platanthera praeclara)
Hayden's Yellow-Cress (Rorippa calycina)
Wolf's Spike-Rush (Eleocharis wolfii)
Dakota Wild Buckwheat (Eriogonum visheri)
Handsome Sedge (Carex formosa)

Belfragii's Chlorochroan Bug (Chlorochroa belfragii (Stal))
Regal Fritillary Butterfly (Speyeria idalia)
Tawny Crescent Butterfly (Phyciodes batesii)
Dakota Skipper Butterfly (Hesperia dacotae)

Elktoe (Alasmidonta marginata)
Callused Vertigo (Vertigo arthuri)

Endangered Species Act

Findings and purpose of the Endangered Species Act:
When congress authorized the Endangered Species Act they declared that species of "fish, wildlife, and plants are of aesthetic, ecological, educational, historical, recreational, and scientific value to the Nation and its people." The purpose of the Act is to provide a means whereby endangered species and their ecosystems may be conserved. The intent of the Endangered Species Act is not to just list species as endangered or threatened, but rather, to recover the populations of these species to a point where they can be removed from the list.

History of the Endangered Species Act:
Laws passed in the late 60's gave limited attention to endangered species; however, it wasn't until the Endangered Species Act was passed in 1973 that significant protection was granted rare species. This landmark law, considered by some the most significant environmental law ever passed, has been amended and reauthorized by congress on numerous occasions, most recently in 1988. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service administers the law for all inland species and certain marine species. The National Marine Fisheries Service administers the law for marine species.

Present status:
The Endangered Species Act is due for reauthorization in 1992.

What are endangered species?:
The Endangered Species Act states that the Secretary of Interior shall determine species as endangered or threatened based on manmade factors affecting their continued existence.
Endangered: Species listed as endangered are in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range.
Threatened: Species listed as threatened are species which are likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future.
Candidates: The Fish and Wildlife Service maintains a list of candidate species which may warrant listing as endangered or threatened; however, the data are inconclusive. Candidate species are not protected under the Endangered Species Act. (Note: See also Candidates for Endangered Species Act Protection -1996 Notice of Review- Question & Answer.)

How many endangered species are there?:
There are presently 676 species listed as either endangered or threatened in the United States as of January 1, 1992; there are 1024 species listed worldwide.

Are species still becoming extinct?:
Scientist estimate that 3 more species become extinct every day, and that number will rise dramatically by the year 2000.

Why save endangered species?:
There are many reasons to save endangered species.
Genetic diversity: All organisms store valuable genetic makeup that once lost, is gone forever. For example, scientists recently found an extremely rare form of corn in South America. This wild cousin of our domestic corn is noteworthy because it is a perennial (a single plant lives for many years). If this wild corn can be hybridized with domestic corn it may relieve farmers from having to replant corn every spring.
Direct uses: Many forms of plants and animals are used directly by humans. Medicines derived from plants have a commercial value of about $40 billion a year. Scientist continue finding new plants for medicinal purposes. For example, researchers have recently found that the Pacific yew, a scrubby "non-economically important" tree found in the rapidly disappearing old growth forests of the northwestern United States, may provide a treatment for cancer.
Environmental monitors: Many species of wildlife and plants are more susceptible to changes in the environment than humans are and therefore, will show detrimental effects before humans do. For example, in the 1960's there was a dramatic decrease in the number of bald eagles. Scientists eventually discovered that the shells of eagle eggs were thinning because of an accumulation in eagles of byproducts from the pesticide DDT. Eagles accumulated the byproducts from the fish they ate that had accumulated the pesticide from the food they ate. Many of these same species of fish were also eaten by humans.
Ecological reasons: All species are interdependent on other species in what is known as the ecological web. For example, many plants have evolved to be pollinated by a specific butterfly. If that species of butterfly became extinct, the plant would eventually also become extinct. Subsequently, other species that depend on the plant may also become extinct.
Recreation: The numbers of people who enjoy nature continues to grow every year. Dollars spent in the pursuit of outdoor recreation are in the millions, and increasing.
Ethical reasons: By causing the extinction of a species today, we are depriving future generations of the experiences and values that the species may have provided.

How does the Act affect me:
The Endangered Species Act has little affect on individuals and property owners. Individuals are affected if they "harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect" endangered or threatened species unless exempted by a permit.

Can I participate?:
Yes! The Endangered Species Act allows and encourages the public to comment and participate on activities concerning endangered species.

For more information on endangered species in North Dakota, or to assist in protecting endangered species, contact the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service at 701-250-4491 (1500 Capitol Ave., Bismarck ND 58501). The North Dakota Game and Fish Department can also provide information on North Dakota's rare species.

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