Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Effects of Section 404 Permits on Wetlands in North Dakota
I thank W. Bicknell and A. Sapa of the Ecological Services Office in Bismarck, North Dakota, and D. Buechler of the
Denver Regional Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for contributions to the planning, budgeting, and
implementation of this study. D. Gladwin provided invaluable support and
answered many questions. J. Winters and the staff of the Bismarck Regulatory Office, U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, provided access to Section 404 files and made recommendations for the study. S. Hettinger and J.
Renchler assisted with the field work. The landowners of North Dakota gave permission to visit discharges on their
properties and contributed in many other ways. J. Berry, W. Bicknell, R. Cook, E. Decker, D. Gladwin, J. Roelle,
and two anonymous referees provided comments on the manuscript.
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