Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
ANDERSON, M. G. 1978. Distribution and production of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.) on a northern prairie marsh. Ecology 59:154-160. BAKKER, J. P., and J. C. RUYTER. 1981. Effects of five years of grazing on a salt-marsh vegetation. Vegetatio 44:81-100. BASSETT, P. A. 1980. Some effects of grazing on vegetation dynamics in the Camargue, France. Vegetatio 43:173-184. BEARD, E. B. 1953. The importance of beaver in waterfowl management at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge. Journal of Wildlife Management 17:398-436. BEECHER, W. J. 1942. Nesting birds and the vegetation substrate. Chicago Ornithological Society, Chicago, Ill. 69 p. BENGTSON, S. A. 1971. Habitat selection of duck broods in Lake Myvatn area, north-east Iceland. Ornis Scandinavica 2:17-26. BENNETT, L. J. 1937. Grazing in relation to the nesting of the blue-wing teal. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 2:393-397. BENNETT, L. J. 1938. The blue-winged teal, its ecology and management. Collegiate Press, Ames, Iowa. 144 p. BERG, P. F. 1956. A study of waterfowl broods in eastern Montana with special reference to movements and the relationship of reservoir fencing to production. Journal of Wildlife Management 20:253-262. BEULE, J. D. 1979. Control and management of cattails in southeastern Wisconsin wetlands. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Technical Bulletin 112. 41 p. BISHOP, R. A., R. D. ANDREWS, and R. J. BRIDGES. 1979. Marsh management and its relationship to vegetation, waterfowl, and muskrats. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 86:50-56. BJORK, S. 1976 The restoration of degraded wetlands. p. 349-354 In M. Smart, ed. International Conference on the Conservation of Wetlands and Waterfowl. International Waterfowl Research Bureau, Slimbridge, England. BOLLER, H. A. 1972. Among the Indians: four years on the upper Missouri, 1858- 1862. M. M. Quaife, ed. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. 370 p. BUE, I. G., L. BLANKENSHIP, and W. H. MARSHALL. 1952. The relationship of grazing practices to waterfowl breeding populations and production on stock ponds in western South Dakota. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 17:396-414. BUTTERY, B. R., and J. M. LAMBERT. 1965. Competition between Glyceria maxima and Phragmites communis in the region of Surlingham Broad. 1. The competition mechanism. Journal of Ecology 53:163-181. CARTWRIGHT, B. W. 1942. Regulated burning as a marsh management technique. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 7:257-263. CHURA, N. J. 1961. Food availability and preferences of juvenile mallards. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 26:121-134. COURCELLES, R., and J. BEDARD. 1978. Habitat selection by dabbling ducks in the Baie Noire marsh, southwestern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57:2230- 2238. DANELL, K., and K. SJOBERG. 1979. Decomposition of Carex and Equisetum in a northern Swedish lake: dry weight loss and colonization by macro- invertebrates. Journal of Ecology 67:191-200. DAVIS, C. B., and A. G. VAN DER VALK. 1978. Litter decomposition in prairie glacial marshes. p. 99-130 In R. E. Good, D. F. Whigham, and R. L. Simpson, eds. Freshwater wetlands. Academic Press, New York. DEAN, B. E. 1933. Effect of soil type and aeration upon root systems of certain aquatic plants. Plant Physiology 8:203-222. DENIG, E. T. 1961. Five Indian tribes of the upper Missouri. J. C. Ewers, ed. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 217 p. DIIRO, B. W. 1982. Effects of burning and mowing on seasonal whitetop ponds in southern Manitoba. M.S. thesis, Iowa State University, Ames. 48 p. DIX, R. L., and F. E. SMEINS. 1967. The prairie, meadow, and marsh vegetation of Nelson County, North Dakota. Canadian Journal of Botany 45:21-58. DREWIEN, R. C., and P. F. SPRINGER. 1969. Ecological relationships of breeding blue-winged teal to prairie potholes. p. 102-115 In Saskatoon Wetlands Seminar. Canadian Wildlife Service, Report Series 6. DZUBIN, A. 1955. Some evidences of home range in waterfowl. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 20:278-298. ERMACOFF, N. 1968. Marsh and habitat management practices at the Mendota Wildlife Area. California Department of Fish and Game, Game Management Leaflet 12. 11 p. EVANS, C. D., and K. E. BLACK. 1956. Duck production studies on the prairie potholes of South Dakota. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Science ReportWildlife 32. 59 p. EVANS, C. D., A. S. HAWKINS, and W. H. MARSHALL. 1952. Movements of waterfowl broods in Manitoba. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Science ReportWildlife 16. 47 p. EVANS, K. E., and R. R. KERBS. 1977. Avian use of livestock watering ponds in western South Dakota. U.S. Forest Service, General Technical Report RM-35. 11 p. FLAKE, L. D., G. L. PETERSEN, and W. L. TUCKER. 1977. Habitat relationships of breeding waterfowl on stock ponds in northwestern South Dakota. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science 56:135-151. FOG, J. 1976. Multi usage of waterfowl habitat. p. 359-363 In M. Smart, ed. International Conference on the Conservation of Wetlands and Waterfowl. International Waterfowl Research Bureau, Slimbridge, England. FURNISS, O. C. 1938. The 1937 waterfowl season in the Prince Albert District, central Saskatchewan. Wilson Bulletin 50:17-27. GIRARD, G. L. 1941. The mallard: its management in western Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 5:233-259. GJERSING, F. M. 1971. A study of waterfowl production on two rest rotation grazing units in north central Montana. M.S. thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman. 42 p. GLOVER, F. A. 1956. Nesting and production of the bluewinged teal (Anas discors Linnaeus) in northwest Iowa. Journal of Wildlife Management 20:28-46. GODIN, P. R., and D. E. JOYNER. 1981. Pond ecology and its influence on mallard use in Ontario, Canada. Wildfowl 32:28-34. GODSHALK, G. L., and R. G. WETZEL. 1978. Decomposition in the littoral zone of lakes. p. 131-143 In R. E. Good, D. F. Whigham, and R. L. Simpson, eds. Freshwater wetlands. Academic press, New York. GORENZEL, W. P., R. A. RYDER, and C. E. BRAUN. 1981. American coot response to habitat change on a Colorado marsh. Southwestern Naturalist 26:59-65. GORENZEL, W. P., R. A. RYDER, and C. E. BRAUN. 1982. Reproduction and nest site characteristics of American coots at different altitudes in Colorado. Condor 84:59-65. GRANGE, W. B. 1949. The way to game abundance. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 365 p. GRIFFITH, R. 1948. Improving waterfowl habitat. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 13:609-618. HAMMOND, M. C. 1961. Habitat improvement studies at Lower Souris National Wildlife Refugepast, present and proposed. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 8 p.[mimeographed]. HARRIS, H. J., G. FEWLESS, M. MILLIGAN, and W. JOHNSON. 1981. Recovery processes and habitat quality in a freshwater coastal marsh following a natural disturbance. p. 363-379 In B. Richardson, ed. Wetland values and management. Minnesota Water Planning Board, St. Paul. HARRIS, S. W. 1954. An ecological study of the waterfowl of the potholes area, Grant County, Washington. American Midland Naturalist 52:403-432. HENRY, A. and D.THOMPSON. 1965. New light on the early history of the greater northwest: the manuscript journals of Alexander Henry and David Thompson 1799-1814. E. Coues, ed. Ross and Hains, Minneapolis. 1027 p. HILDEN, O. 1964. Ecology of duck populations in the island group of Valassaaret, Gulf of Bothnia. Annales Zoologici Fennici I: I 53-277. HILLIARD, M. A. 1974. The effects of regulated livestock grazing on waterfowl production. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Publication 74-8. 96 p. HINES, J. E. 1975. Gadwall nesting and brood ecology at Waterhen Marsh, Saskatchewan. M.S. thesis, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan. 218 p. HOCHBAUM, H. A. 1944. The canvasback on a prairie marsh. The American Wildlife Institute, Washington, D.C. 201 p. HOPPER, R. M. 1972. Waterfowl use in relation to size and cost of potholes. Journal of Wildlife Management 36:459-468. HUDSON, M. S. 1983. Waterfowl production on three age classes of stock ponds in Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 47:1 12-1 17. IGNATOSKI, F. J. 1966. The ecology of wild ducks in two central Michigan impoundment marshes. M.S. thesis Michigan State University, Lansing. 37 p. JAHN, L. R., and J. B. MOYLE. 1964. Plants on parade. p. 293-304 In J. P. Linduska, ed. Waterfowl Tomorrow. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. JOHNSGARD, P. A. 1956. Effects of water fluctuation and vegetation change on bird populations, particularly waterfowl. Ecology 37:689-701. JOYNER, D. E. 1980. Influence of invertebrates on pond selection by ducks in Ontario. Journal of Wildlife Management 44:700-705. JOYNER, D. E. 1982. Abundance and availability of invertebrates in ponds in relation to dietary requirements of mallards and blue-winged teal at Luther Marsh. Ontario Field Biologist 36:19-34. KAMANSKI, R. M., and H. H. PRINCE. 1981 a. Dabbling duck activity and foraging responses to aquatic macroinvertebrates. Auk 98:115-126. KAMANSKI, R. M., and H. H. PRINCE. 1981 b. Dabbling duck and aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to manipulated wetland habitat. Journal of Wildlife Management 45:1-15. KAMANSKI, R. M., and H. H. PRINCE. 1984. Dabbling duck-habitat associations during spring in Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:37-50. KEITH, L. B. 1961. A study of waterfowl ecology on small impoundments in southeastern Alberta. Wildlife Monograph 6. 88 p. KIRSCH, L. M. 1969. Waterfowl production in relation to grazing. Journal of Wildlife Management. 33:821-828. KOMAREK, E. V., Sr. 1976. Fire ecology review. Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecological Conference 14:201-216. KOZLOWSKI, T. T. and C. E. AHLGREN. 1974. Fire and ecosystems. Academic Press, New York. 542 p. KRAPU, G. L., and H. F. DUEBBERT. 1974. A biological survey of Kraft Slough. Prairie Naturalist 6:33-55. LARSSON, T. 1969 Land use and bird fauna on shores in southern Sweden. Oikos 20:136-155. LEWIS, F. J., E. S. DOWDING, and E. H. MOSS. 1928. The vegetation of Alberta. II. The swamp, moor, and bog forest vegetation of central Alberta. Journal of Ecology 16:19-70. LINDE, A. F., T. JANISCH, and D. SMITH. 1976. Cattail: the significance of its growth, phenology and carbohydrate storage to its control and management. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Technical Bulletin 94. 27 p. LOGAN, T. H. 1975. Characteristics of small impoundments in western Oklahoma, their value as waterfowl habitat and potential for management. M.S. thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. 77 p. LOKEMOEN, J. T. 1966. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 30:668-681. MACK, G. D., and L. D. FLAKE. 1980. Habitat relationships of waterfowl broods on South Dakota stock ponds. Journal of Wildlife Management 44:695-700. MARCH, J. R., G. F. MARTZ, and R. A. HUNT. 1973. Breeding duck populations and habitat in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Technical Bulletin 68. 37 p. MARSHALL, W. H. 1952. Waterfowl of three prairie potholes. Flicker 24:60-68. MASON, C. F., and R. J. BRYANT. 1975. Production, nutrient content, and decomposition of Phragmites communis Trin. and Typha angustifolia L. Journal of Ecology 63:71-95. MCDONALD, M. E. 1955. Cause and effects of a die-off of emergent vegetation. Journal of Wildlife Management 19:24-35. MCENROE, M. R. 1976. Factors influencing habitat use by breeding waterfowl in South Dakota. M.S. thesis, South Dakota State University, Brookings. 67 p. MCNAUGHTON, S. J. 1968. Autotoxic feedback in relation to germination and seedling growth in Typha latifolia. Ecology 49:367-369. MEDNIS, A. A. 1974. Influence of vegetation on the species, composition and distribution of nesting ducks on the islands of Lake Engure. p. 87-106 In H. A. Mihelsons and J. A. Viksne, eds. Ecology of waterfowl of Latvia [translated from Russian]. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Services TT71-53131. MENDALL, H. L. 1948. Water levels and waterfowl management. Proceedings of the 1948 Northeastern Game Conference 86-88. MESSINGER, R. D. 1974. Effects of controlled burning on waterfowl nesting habitat in northwest Iowa. M.S. thesis. Iowa State University, Ames. 49 p. METCALF, F. P. 1931. Wild-duck foods of North Dakota lakes. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 221. 72 p. MIHELSONS, H. A. 1968. Methods of increasing the duck populations on lakes in Latvia. p. 41-55 In Z. D. Spurin, chief ed. Birds of the Baltic region: ecology and migrations. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. MIHELSONS, H. A., G. T. LEJINS, and A. A. MEDNIS. 1974. Nesting ducks of Lake Engure and their investigation. p. 1-53 In H. A. Mihelsons and J. A. Viksne, eds. Ecology of waterfowl in Latvia [translated from Russian]. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service TT71-53131. MILLAR, J. B. 1973. Vegetation changes in shallow marsh wetlands under improving moisture regime. Canadian Journal of Botany 51: 1443-1457. MOLLER, H. S. 1975. Danish salt-marsh communities of breeding birds in relation to different types of management. Ornis Scandinavica 6:125-133. MUNDINGER, J. G. 1975. The influence of rest-rotation grazing management on waterfowl production on stockwater reservoirs in Phillips County, Montana. M.S. thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman. 100 p. MUNRO, D. A. 1963. Ducks and the Great Plains wetlands. Canadian Audubon 25:105-111. MURKIN, H. R. 1979. Response by waterfowl and blackbirds to an experimentally manipulated cattail marsh. M.S. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec. 97 p. MURKIN, H. R., R. M. KAMINSKI, and R. D. TITMAN. 1982. Responses by dabbling ducks and aquatic invertebrates to an experimentally manipulated cattail marsh. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:2324-2332. NEELY, W. W. 1967. Planting, disking, mowing and grazing. p. 212-221 In J. D. Newsom, ed. Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary Management Symposium. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. NELSON, N. F., and R. H. DEITZ. 1966. Cattail control methods in Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game Publication 66-2. 31 p. NEWTON, I., and R. S. CAMPBELL. 1975. Breeding of ducks at Loch Leven, Kinross. Wildfowl 26:83-103. NUDDS, T. D. 1982. Ecological separation of grebes and coots: interference competition or microhabitat selection? Wilson Bulletin 94:505-514. ORIANS, G. 1972. The adaptive significance of mating systems in the Icteridae. Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Ornithological Congress 389-398. PARNELL, J. F., and T. L. QUAY. 1965. The populations, breeding biology, and environmental relations of the black duck, gadwall, and blue-winged teal at Pea and Bodie Islands, North Carolina. Proceedings of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commission 16:53-67. PATTERSON, J. H. 1976. The role of environmental heterogeneity in the regulation of duck populations. Journal of Wildlife Management 40:22-32. PERRET, N. G. 1962. The spring and summer foods of the common mallard (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos L.) in south central Manitoba. M.S. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 82 p. PIEST, L. A. 1982. Evaluation of waterfowl habitat improvements in the Apache- Sitgreaves National Forest, Arizona. M.S. thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, 87 p. PIRNIE, M.D. 1935. Michigan waterfowl management. Michigan Department of Conservation, Lansing. 328 p. POSTON, H. J. 1969a. Home range and breeding biology of the shoveler. M. S. thesis, Utah State University, Logan. 86p. POSTON, H. J. 1969b. Relationships between the shoveler and its breeding habitat at Strathmore, Alberta. p. 132-137 In Saskatoon Wetlands Seminar. Canadian Wildlife Service, Report Series 6. QUAME, O. A., and A. H. GREWE, Jr. 1970. Waterfowl production in a selected wetland management area. Journal of Minnesota Academy of Science 36:89-92. REIMOLD, R. J., R. A. LINTHURST, and P. L. WOLF. 1975. Effects of grazing on a salt marsh. Biological Conservation 8:105-125. RINGELMAN, J. K., and J. R. LONGCORE. 1982. Movements and wetland selection by brood-rearing black ducks. Journal of Wildlife Management 46:615-621. ROGERS, J. P. 1964. Effect of drought on reproduction of the lesser scaup. Journal of Wildlife Management 28:213-222. RUTKOWSKY, F. W. 1978. Bibliography on the effects of prescribed burning and mammal and waterfowl utilization of wetlands: annotated literature search with selected abstracts. National Technical Information Services (NTIS PB286 117), Springfield, Virginia. 45 p. SALYER, J. W. 1962. Effects of drought and land use on prairie nesting ducks. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 27:69-79. SANDERSON, G. C., and F. C. BELLROSE. 1969. Wildlife habitat management of wetlands. Anais da Academia Brasileiros Ciencias 41(Suppl.):153-204. SCHLICHTEMEIER, G. 1967. Marsh burning for waterfowl. Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecological Conference 6:41-46. SCHROEDER, L. D. 1973. A literature review on the role of invertebrates in waterfowl management. Colorado Division of Wildlife Special Report 29. 13 p. SEABLOOM, R. W. 1958. A study of production, survival, and movements of the Great Plains muskrat (Ondatra zibethica cinnamoninus) in North Dakota. M.S. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 95 p. SEYMOUR, N. R. 1974. Territorial behavior of wild shovelers at Delta, Manitoba. Wildfowl 25:49-55. SHEARER, L. A. 1960. Use of dugouts by breeding ducks. Journal of Wildlife Management 24:213-215. SIEGFRIED, W. R. 1976. Segregation in feeding behavior of four diving ducks in southern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Zoology 54:730-736. SJOBERG, K., and K. DANELL. 1982. Feeding activity of ducks in relation to diel emergence of chironomids. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:1383-1387. SMEINS, F. E. 1965. The grassland and marshes of Nelson County, North Dakota. M.S. thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. 82 p. SMITH, A. G. 1969. Waterfowl-habitat relationships on the Lousana, Alberta, waterfowl study area. p. 116-122 In Saskatoon Wetlands Seminar. Canadian Wildlife Service, Report series 6. SMITH, L. M., J. A. KADLEC, and P. V. FONNESBECK. 1984. Effects of prescribed burning on nutritive quality of marsh plants in Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:285-288. SMITH, R. H. 1953. A study of waterfowl production on artificial reservoirs in eastern Montana. Journal of Wildlife Management 17:276-291. SMITH, R. I. 1955. The breeding territory and its relationship to waterfowl productivity at Ogden Bay Bird Refuge. M.S. thesis, Utah State Agriculture College, Logan 46 p. SMITH, R. I. 1968. The social aspects of reproductive behavior in the pintail. Auk 85:381-396. SOWLS, L. K. 1951. A study of the ecology and behavior of some surface-feeding ducks. Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison. 194 p. SOWLS, L. K. 1955. Prairie ducks. Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 193 p. SPENCE, D. H. N., and J. CHRYSTAL. 1970. Photosynthesis and zonation of freshwater macrophytes. 1. Depth distribution and shade tolerance. New Phytologist 69:205-215. STEEL, P. E., P. D. DALKE, and E. G. BIZEAU. 1956. Duck production at Grey's Lake, Idaho, 1949-1951. Journal of Wildlife Management 20:279-285. STENZEL, J. R. 1982. Ecology of breeding yellow rails at Seney National Wildlife Refuge. M.S. thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus. 96 p. STEWART, R. E., and H. A. KANTRUD. 1971. Classification of natural ponds and lakes in the glaciated prairie region. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Resources Publication 92. 57 p. STEWART, R. E., and H. A. KANTRUD. 1972. Vegetation of prairie potholes, North Dakota, in relation to quality of water and other environmental factors. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 585-D. 36 p. STOUDT, J. H. 1944. Food preferences of mallards on the Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management 8: 100-112. STOUDT, J. H. 1971. Ecological factors affecting waterfowl production in the Saskatchewan parklands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Resources Publication 99. 58 p. STOUDT, J. H. 1982. Habitat use and productivity of canvasbacks in southwestern Manitoba, 1961-72. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Science Report Wildlife 248. 31 p. SUGDEN, L. G. 1973. Feeding ecology of pintail, gadwall, American widgeon and lesser scaup ducklings. Canadian Wildlife Service, Report Series 24. 45 p. SUGDEN, L. G., and D. A. BENSON. 1970. An evaluation of loafing rafts for attracting ducks. Journal of Wildlife Management 34:340-343. TALENT, L. G., G. L. KRAPU, and R. L. JARVIS. 1982. Habitat use by mallard broods in south central North Dakota. Journal of Wildlife Management 46: 629-635. TESTER, J. R., and W. H. MARSHALL. 1962. Minnesota prairie management techniques and their wildlife implications. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 27:267-287. THOMAS, G. J. 1980. The ecology of breeding waterfowl at the Ouse Washes, England. Wildfowl 31:73-88. THOMPSON, D. J. 1982. Effects of fire on Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and associated species at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. M.S. thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 199 p. THOMPSON, D. Q. 1959. Biological investigation of the upper Fox River. Wisconsin Conservation Department, Special Wildlife Report 2. 41 p. THOMPSON, I. D. 1974. Movement and use of habitat by brood-rearing ducks at Lake St. Francis, Que. M.S. thesis, York University, Toronto, Ontario. 123 p. TRAUGER, D. L. 1967. Habitat factors influencing duck brood use of semi- permanent and permanent prairie potholes in North Dakota. M.S. thesis, Iowa State University, Ames. 229 p. TRAUX, W. C., and L. F. GUNTHER. 1951. The effectiveness of game management techniques employed on Horicon Marsh. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 16:326-330. UHLIG, H. G. 1963. Use of Minnesota ponds and pits by waterfowl. Wilson Bulletin 75:78-82. VOGL, R. J. 1967. Controlled burning for wildlife in Wisconsin. Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecological Conference 6:47-96. VOGL, R. J. 1973. Effects of fire on the plants and animals of a Florida wetland. American Midland Naturalist 89:334-347. VOIGHTS, D. K. 1973. Aquatic invertebrate abundance in relation to changing marsh conditions. Ph.D. thesis, Iowa State University, Ames. 53 p. WALKER, B. H. 1968. Ecology of herbaceous wetland vegetation in the aspen grove and grassland regions of Saskatchewan. Ph.D. thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. 180 p. WALKER, B. H., and R. T. Coupland. 1968. An analysis of vegetation environment relationships in Saskatchewan sloughs. Canadian Journal of Botany 46:509-522. WALKER, J. M. 1959. Vegetation studies on the Delta Marsh, Delta, Manitoba. M.S. thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 203 p. WARD, E. 1942. Phragmites management. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 7:294-298. WARD, P. 1968. Fire in relation to waterfowl habitat of the Delta marshes. Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecological Conference 8:254-267. WELLEIN, E. G. 1942. A waterfowl production study on the Chippewa National Forest. M.S. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 71 p. WELLER, M. W. 1975a. Habitat selection by waterfowl of Argentine Isla Grande. Wilson Bulletin 87:83-90. WELLER, M. W. 1975b. Studies of cattail in relation to management for marsh wildlife. Iowa State Journal of Research 49:383-412. WELLER, M. W. 1978. Management of freshwater marshes for wildlife. p. 267-284 In R. E. Good, D. F. Whigham, and R. L. Simpson, eds. Freshwater wetlands. Academic Press, New York. WELLER, M. W. 1979. Small-mammal populations and experimental burning of Dewey's Pasture, northwest Iowa, 1970-1974. Iowa State Journal of Research 53:325-332. WELLER, M. W., and L. H. FREDRICKSON. 1973. Avian ecology of a managed glacial marsh. Living Bird 12:269-291. WELLER, M. W., and C. E. SPATCHER. 1965. Role of habitat in the distribution and abundance of marsh birds. Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station, Special Report 43. 31 p. WHEELER, W. E., and J. R. MARCH. 1979. Characteristics of scattered wetlands in relation to duck production in southeastern Wisconsin. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Technical Bulletin 116. 61 p. WHITMAN, W. R. 1974. The response of macro-invertebrates to experimental marsh management. Ph.D. thesis, University of Maine, Orono. 114 p. WHITMAN, W. R. 1976. Artificial wetlands for waterfowl. p. 336-344 In M. Smart, ed. International Conference on the Conservation of Wetlands and Waterfowl. International Waterfowl Research Bureau, Slimbridge, England. WILLIAMS, M., and M. J. IMBER. 1970. The role of marginal vegetation in some waterfowl habitats. New Zealand Ecological Society Proceedings 17:126-128. WILLSON, M. F. 1966. Breeding ecology of the yellowheaded blackbird. Ecological Monograph 36:51-77. WRIGHT, H. A., and A. W. BAILEY. 1982. Fire ecology, United States and southern Canada. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 501 p.