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Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States


Abbott, R. T. 1968. Seashells of North America. Golden Press,  New York. 280 pp.

Akins, G. J., and C. Q. Jefferson. 1973. Coastal wetlands of Oregon. Oregon 
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Anderson, J. R., E. E. Hardy, J. T. Roach, and R. E. Witmer. 1976. A land use 
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Anderson, R. R., R. G. Brown, and R. D. Rappleye. 1968. Water quality and plant 
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Bailey, R. G. 1976. Ecoregions of the United States, U.S. Forest Service, 
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Bailey, R. G. 1978. Ecoregions of the United States. U.S. Forest Service, 
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Bayly, I. A. E. 1967. The general biological classification of aquatic 
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     in A. H. Weatherley, ed. Australian inland waters and their fauna. 
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Black, C. A. 1968. Soil plant relationships. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New 
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Bormann, F. H., and G. E. Likens, 1969. The watershed-ecosystem concept and 
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Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Hafner Publishing 
     Co., New York and London. 596 pp.

Brinkhurst, R. O., and B. G. M. Jamieson. 1972. Aquatic oligochaetes of the 
     world. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 860  pp.

Britton, M. E. 1957. Vegetation of the Arctic tundra. Oregon  State Univ. Biol. 
     Colloq. 18:26-61.

Burbank, W. D. 1967. Evolutionary and ecological implications  of the 
     zoogeography, physiology and morphology of Cyanthura (Isopoda). Pages 
     564-573 in G. H. Lauff, ed. Estuaries. Am.  Assoc. Adv. Sci. Publ. 83.

Cain, S. A., and G. M. de Oliveira Castro. 1959. Manual of vegetation analysis. 
     Harper & Brothers, New York. 325 pp.

Carriker, M. R. 1967. Ecology of estuarine benthic invertebrates: a perspective. 
     Pages 442-487 in G. H. Lauff, ed. Estuaries. Am.  Assoc. Adv. Sci. Publ. 83.

Caspers, H. 1967. Estuaries: analysis of definitions and biological 
     considerations. Pages 6-8 in G. H. Lauff, ed. Estuaries. Am.  Assoc. Adv. 
     Sci. Publ. 83.

Chabreck, R. H. 1972. Vegetation, water and soil characteristics of the Louisiana 
     coastal region. La. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 664. 72 pp.

Chapman, V. J. 1974. Salt marshes and salt deserts of the world. 2nd supplemented 
     edition. J. Cramer, Lehre. 392 pp.

Chapman, V. J. 1976. Mangrove vegetation. J. Cramer, Leuterhausen. 447 pp.

Chapman, V. J. 1977. Introduction. Pages 1-30 in V. J. Chapman, ed. Wet coastal 
     ecosystems. Ecosystems of the world 1.  Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 
     New York.

Clarke, A. H. 1973. The freshwater mollusks of the Canadian Interior Basin. 
     Malacologia 13(1-2):1-509.

Cowardin, L. M. 1978. Wetland classification in the United States. J. For. 

Crickmay, C. H. 1974. The work of the river. The MacMillan Press, Ltd., London. 
     271 pp.

Cummins, K. W., C. A. Tryon, Jr., and R. T. Hartman, editors. 1964. 
     Organism--substrate relationships in streams. Pymatuning Lab. Ecol., Univ. 
     Pittsburg Spec. Publ. 4. 145 pp.

Curtis, J. T. 1959. The vegetation of Wisconsin. The University of Wisconsin 
     Press, Madison. 657 pp. 

Dansereau, P., and F. Segadas-vianna. 1952. Ecological study of the peat bogs 
     of eastern North America. I. Structure and evolution of vegetation. Can. J. 
     Bot. 30:490-520.

Daubenmire, R. 1968. Plant communities. Harper & Row, New  York. 300 pp.

den Hartog, C. 1960. Comments on the Venice-system for the classification of 
     brackish water. Int. Rev. gesamten Hydrobiol. 45:481-485.

Dillon, O. W. 1966. Gulf coast marsh handbook. U. S. Soil Conservation Service, 
     Alexandria, Louisiana. n.p.

Dix. R. L., and F. E. Smeins. 1967. The prairie, meadow, and marsh vegetation 
     of Nelson County, North Dakota. Can. J. Bot. 45:21-58.

Driscoll, R. S., J. W. Russell, and M. C. Meier. 1978. Recommended national 
     land classification system for renewable resource assessments. U.S. 
     Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort 
     Collins, Colorado.  (Unpublished manuscript)

Drury, W. H., Jr. 1962. Patterned ground and vegetation on southern Bylot 
     Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Harvard Univ. Gray Herb. Contrib. 
     190. 111 pp.

Duncan, W. H. 1974. Vascular halophytes of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of 
     North America north of Mexico. Pages 23-50 in R. J. Reimold and W. H. 
     Queen, eds. Ecology of halophytes.  Academic Press, Inc., New York.

Eleuterius, L. M. 1972. The marshes of Mississippi. Castanea 37:153-168.

Eleuterius, L. M. 1973. The distribution of certain submerged plants in 
     Mississippi Sound and adjacent waters. Pages 191-197 in J. L. Christmas, 
     ed. Cooperative Gulf of Mexico estuarine inventory and study. Mississippi 
     Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Ocean Springs.

Golet, F. C., and J. S. Larson. 1974. Classification of freshwater  wetlands 
     in the glaciated Northeast. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv.,  Resour. Publ. 116. 
     56 pp.

Gosner, K. L. 1971. Guide to identification of marine and estuarine 
     invertebrates: Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy. John Wiley & Sons, 
     Inc., New York. 693 pp.

Gray, I. E. 1974. Worm and clam flats. Pages 204-243 in H. T. Odum, B. J. 
     Copeland, and E. A. McMahan, eds. Coastal  ecological systems of the 
     United States. Vol. 2. The Conservation Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Hart, C. W., Jr., and S. L. H. Fuller, editors. 1974. Pollution ecology of 
     freshwater invertebrates. Academic Press, Inc., New York. 389 pp.

Hedgpeth, J. W. 1957. Classification of marine environments. Pages 17-28 in 
     J. W. Hedgpeth, ed. Treatise on marine ecology  and paleoecology; Vol. 
     l-Ecology. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 67.

Heinselman, M. L. 1963. Forest sites, bog processes, and peatland types in the
     Glacial Lake Agassiz Region, Minnesota. Ecol. Monogr. 33(4):327-374.

Heinselman, M. L. 1970. Landscape evolution, peatland types, and the 
     environment in the Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, Minnesota, Ecol. 
     Monogr. 40(2):235-261.

Hutchinson, G. E. 1975. A treatise on limnology. Vol. 3. Limnological botany. 
     John Wiley & Sons, New York. 660 pp.

Hynes, H. B. N. 1970. The ecology of running waters. University of Toronto 
     Press, Toronto. 555 pp.

Illies, J., and L. Botosaneau. 1963. Problems et methodes de la classification 
     et de la zonation ecologique des aux courantes, considerees surtout du 
     point de vue faunistique. Int. Assoc. Theor. Appl. Limnol. Commun. 12. 
     57 pp.

Ingram, W. M. 1971. Survival of fresh-water mollusks during periods of dryness. 
     Nautilis 54(3):84-87.

Jeglum, J. K. 1971. Plant indicators of pH and water level in peatlands at 
     Candle Lake, Saskatchewan. Can. J. Bot. 49:1661-1676.

Jeglum, J. K., A. N. Boissonneau, and V. G. Haavisto. 1974. Toward a wetland 
     classification for Ontario. Can. For. Serv.  Inf. Rep. 0-X-215. 54 pp.

Johnson, R. I. 1970. The systematics and zoogeography of the Unionidae 
     (Mollusca: Bivalvia) of the Southern Atlantic Slope Region. Harvard Univ. 
     Mus. Comp. Zool. Bull. 140(6):263-450.

Kenk, R. 1949. The animal life of temporary and permanent ponds in southern 
     Michigan. Univ. Mich. Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ. 71. 66 pp.

Ketchum, B. H., editor. 1972. The water's edge: critical problems of the 
     coastal zone. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. 393 pp.

Kologiski, R. L. 1977. The phytosociology of the Green Swamp, North Carolina. 
     N.C. Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 250. 101 pp.

Köppen, W. 1931. Grundriss der Klimakunde. Walter de Gruyter  & Co., Berlin. 
     388 pp.

Krecker, F. H., and L. Y. Lancaster. 1933. Bottom shore fauna of western Lake 
     Erie: a population study to a depth of six feet. Ecology 14:79-83.

Küchler, A. W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United 
     States. Am. Geogr. Soc. Spec. Publ. 36. 116 pp.

Kuenzler, E. J. 1974. Mangrove swamp systems. Pages 346-371 in H. T. Odum, 
     B. J. Copeland, and E. A. McMahan. eds. Coastal ecological systems of the 
     United States. Vol. 1. The Conservation Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Kurz, H., and K. Wagner. 1957. Tidal marshes of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of 
     northern Florida and Charleston, South Carolina. Fla. State Univ. Stud. 
     24. 168 pp.

Langbein, W. B., and K. T. Iseri. 1960. General introduction and hydrologic 
     definitions manual of hydrologic. Part 1. General surface-water techniques. 
     U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-Supply Pap. 1541-A. 29 pp.

Lauff, G. H., editor. 1967. Estuaries. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Publ. 83.

Leitch, W. G. 1966. Historical and ecological factors in wetland inventory. 
     Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 31:88-96.

Lewis, J. R. 1964. The ecology of rocky shores. English Universities Press 
     Ltd., London. 323 pp.

Liu, T. K. 1970. A review of engineering soil classification systems. Pages 
     362-382 in Special procedures for testing soil and rock for engineering 
     purposes. Am. Soc. Test. Mater. Spec. Tech. Publ. 479. 630 pp.

Macan, T. T. 1961. Factors that limit the range of freshwater animals. Biol. 
     Rev. 36:151-198.

Macan, T. T. 1963. Freshwater ecology John Wiley & Sons. Inc., New York. 
     338 pp.

MacDonald, K. B., and M. B. Barbour. 1974. Beach and salt marsh vegetation of 
     the North American Pacific coast. Pages 175-233 in R. J. Reimold and W. H.
     Queen, eds. Ecology of halophytes. Academic Press, Inc., New York.

Martin, A. C., N. Hotchkiss, F. M. Uhler, and W. S Bourn. 1953. Classification 
     of wetlands of the United States. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. 
     Rep.--Wildl. 20. 14 pp.

Millar, J. B. 1976. Wetland classification in western Canada: a guide to 
     marshes and shallow open water wetlands in the grasslands and parklands of 
     the Prairie Provinces. Can. Wildl. Serv. Rep. Ser. 37. 38 pp.

Miner, R. W. 1950. Field book of seashore life. G. P Putnam's Sons, New York. 
     888 pp.

Montanari, J. H., and J. E. Townsend. 1977. Status of the National Wetlands 
     Inventory. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour.  Conf. 42:66-72.

Moore, P. D., and D. J. Bellamy. 1974. Peatlands. Springer-Verlag, Inc., New 
     York. 221 pp.

Morris, P. A. 1966. A field guide to shells of the Pacific Coast and Hawaii. 
     Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 297 pp.

Moyle, J. B. 1945. Some chemical factors influencing the distribution of 
     aquatic plants in Minnesota. Am. Midl. Nat. 34(2):402-420.

Moyle, J. B. 1946. Some indices of lake productivity. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 

Mueller-Dombois, D., and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation 
     ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 547 pp.

Odum, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of ecology. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 
     544 pp.

Odum, H. T. 1974. Tropical marine meadows. Pages 442-487 in  H. T. Odum, B. J. 
     Copeland, and E. A. McMahan, eds. Coastal  ecological systems of the 
     United States. Vol. 1. The Conservation Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Odum, H. T., B. J. Copeland, and E. A. McMahan, editors. 1974. Coastal 
     ecological systems of the United States. The Conservation Foundation, 
     Washington, D.C. 4 Vol.

Penfound, W. T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. Bot. Rev. 18:413-436.

Penfound, W. T., and E. S. Hathaway. 1938. Plant communities in the marshlands 
     of southeastern Louisiana. Ecol. Monogr.  8:1-56.

Pennak, R. W. 1978. Fresh-water invertebrates of the United States. 2nd 
     Edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 803 pp.

Pestrong, R. 1965. The development of drainage patterns on tidal marshes. 
     Stanford Univ. Publ. Geol. Sci. 10:1-87.

Phillips, R. C. 1974. Temperate grass flats. Pages 244-314 in H. T. Odum, B. J. 
     Copeland, and E. A. McMahan, eds. Coastal ecological systems of the United 
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Pollett, F. C., and P. B. Bridgewater. 1973. Phytosociology of peatlands in 
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Price, J. B., and G. Gunter. 1964. Studies of the chemistry of fresh and low 
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Radford, A. E. 1978. Natural area classification systems: a standardized scheme 
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Radforth, N. W. 1962. Organic terrain and geomorphology. Can. Geogr. 

Ranwell, D. S. 1972. Ecology of salt marshes and sand dunes. Chapman and Hall, 
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Redfield, A. C. 1972. Development of a New England salt marsh. Ecol. Monogr. 

Reid, G. K., and R. D. Wood. 1976. Ecology of inland waters and estuaries. D. 
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Remane, A., and C. Schlieper. 1971. Biology of brackish water. Wiley 
     Interscience Division, John Wiley & Sons, New York. 372 pp.

Ricketts, E. F., and J. Calvin. 1968. Between Pacific tides, 4th ed. Revised by 
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Riedl, R., and E. A. McMahan. 1974. High energy beaches. Pages 180-251 in H. T. 
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Sculthorpe, C. D. 1967. The biology of aquatic vascular plants. Edward Arnold 
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Shaw, S. P., and C. G. Fredine. 1956. Wetlands of the United States. U.S. Fish 
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Sjörs, H. 1950. On the relation between vegetation and electrolytes in north 
     Swedish mire waters. Oikos 2:241-258.

Sjörs, H. 1959. Bogs and fens in the Hudson Bay lowlands. J. Arctic Inst. Am. 

Slack, K. V., J. W. Nauman, and L. J. Tilley. 1977. Benthic invertebrates in an 
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Smith, R. I. 1964. Key to marine invertebrates of the Woods Hole Region. 
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Stegman, J. L. 1976. Overview of current wetland classification and inventories 
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     Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.

Stehr, W. C., and J. U. Branson. 1938. An ecological study of  an intermittent 
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Stephenson, T. A., and A. Stephenson. 1972. Life between tidemarks on rocky 
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Stewart, R. E. 1962. Waterfowl populations in the upper Chesapeake Region. U.S. 
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Stewart, R. E., and H. A. Kantrud. 1971. Classification of natural ponds and 
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