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Effects of a Legal Drain Clean-Out on Wetlands and
Waterbirds: A Recent Case History


I thank P. J. Pietz, D. A. Carson, R. L. Collins, L. C. Glaser, L. H. Fredrickson, R. J. Greenwood, D. H. Johnson, H. A. Kantrud, J. R. Keough, and M. W. Weller for reviewing and commenting on earlier drafts of the manuscript; W. E. Newton for assistance in statistical analyses; M. Estep-Johnston of the Division of Water Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver, Colorado and D. M. Frick of Resource Consultants and Engineers, Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado for providing data on annual precipitation rates at gaging stations near the study area during the 1892-1994 period; M. W. Keller of the Omaha District Office of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and J. Winters of the North Dakota Office of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for providing information on land use and Section 404 regulations; R. L. Collins of the Bismarck Office of Fish and Wildlife Enhancement and F. Geise and J. Lalor of the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge for providing photos and other valuable information on BBM; L. C. Glaser and R. M. Windingstad of the National Wildlife Health Science Center, Madison, Wisconsin for providing information on waterfowl disease outbreaks in the prairie pothole region; D. Cohan of the Habitat Assessement and Populations Evaluation Team of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Bismarck, North Dakota for providing information on frequency and area of Sargent County wetlands; H. Bellin and J. Violett, retired game wardens of the North Dakota State Game and Fish Department, for information on recreational use of waterfowl staging in BBM; H. F. Duebbert for information on BBM water depths; and R. D. McCabe of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for providing unpublished breeding bird survey data collected by R. Schmidt and P. Dryer as part of biological investigations for the Garrison Diversion Unit. I am grateful to R. I. Smith and D. A. Davenport of the Migratory Bird Management Office for providing band recovery records for waterfowl; D. A. Brandt, H. T. Sklebar, and W. F Jensen for the digitizing and measuring wetland zones and other habitat features; J. E. Austin and M. D. Schwartz for assistance in a July 1990 waterbird survey; D. A. Brandt for preparing figures; and T. G. Hanson for assistance during typing of early drafts of the manuscript.
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