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Native Wildflowers of the North Dakota Grasslands

JPG -- Cover Photo, Common Pincushion Cactus
Common Pincushion Cactus (Coryphantha missouriensis)

For the past 15 years, Northern Prairie biologist Harold A. Kantrud has written a series of articles about native wildflowers of the North Dakota grasslands. The articles appear weekly in local newspapers and are published during the week each species is expected to bloom. The articles appeal to a wide audience of professionals and nature enthusiasts.

Each article is three to four paragraphs in length and usually consists of the life history of the species, its identifying traits, where in North Dakota one can expect to find it, and its nomenclatural history. When available, a picture of each species is included.

We thank Kurt A. Adolfson, White Bear Lake, Minnesota, and Jack Lefor, Dickinson, North Dakota, for use of their many excellent photographs on this site.

This resource should be cited as:
Kantrud, Harold A.  1995.  Native Wildflowers of the North Dakota Grasslands.  
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.  
     (Version 06JUL2000).


Commelinaceae (The Spiderwort Family)
Prairie Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis)
Common Spiderwort (Tradescantia bracteata)

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Liliaceae (The Lily Family)
Pink Wild Onion (Allium stellatum)
White Wild Onion (Allium textile)
Mariposa Lily (Calochortus nuttallii)
Leopard Lily (Fritillaria atropurpurea)
Mountain Lily (Leucocrinum montanum)
Wild Lily (Lilium philadelphicum)
White Camas (Zigadenus elegans)
Narrowleaved Death Camas (Zigadenus venenosus)

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Amaryllidaceae (The Amaryllis Family)
Yellow Stargrass (Hypoxis hirsuta)

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Iridaceae (The Iris Family)
Blue-eyed Grass (Sisyrinchium montanum)

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Agavaceae (The Agave Family)
Yucca (Yucca glauca)

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Orchidaceae (The Orchid Family)
Yellow Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium calceolus)
White Lady's Slipper (Cypripedium candidum)
Prairie Fringed Orchid (Habenaria leucophaea)
Nodding Ladies-Tresses (Spiranthes cernua)
Late-flowering Ladies-tresses (Spiranthes magnicamporum)

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Santalaceae (The Sandalwood Family)
Bastard Toadflax (Comandra umbellata)

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Polygonaceae (The Buckwheat Family)
Annual Eriogonum (Eriogonum annuum)
Yellow Wild Buckwheat (Eriogonum flavum)
Fewflowered Eriogonum (Eriogonum pauciflorum)
Veined Dock (Rumex venosus)

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Chenopodiaceae (The Goosefoot Family)
Silverscale Saltbush (Atriplex argentea)
Moundscale (Atriplex nuttallii)
Winter Fat (Ceratoides lanata)
Annual Povertyweed (Monolepis nuttalliana)

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Nyctaginaceae (The Four-O'Clock Family)
Hairy Four-o'clock (Mirabilis hirsuta)
Narrowleaf Four-o'clock (Mirabilis linearis)
Wild Four-o'clock (Mirabilis nyctaginea)

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Portulacaceae (The Purslane Family)
Prairie Fameflower (Talinum parviflorum)

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Caryophyllaceae (The Pink Family)
Grove Sandwort (Arenaria lateriflora)
Prairie Chickweed (Cerastium arvense)
Yellow Nailwort (Paronychia sessiliflora)

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Ranunculaceae (The Crowfoot Family)
Meadow Anemone (Anemone canadensis)
Candle Anemone (Anemone cylindrica)
Pasqueflower (Anemone patens)
Little Larkspur (Delphinium bicolor)
Prairie Larkspur (Delphinium virescens)
Smoothstem Buttercup (Ranunculus glaberrimus)
Prairie Buttercup (Ranunculus rhomboideus)

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Fumariaceae (The Fumitory Family)
Golden Corydalis (Corydalis aurea)

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Brassicaceae (The Mustard Family)
Spreadpod Rock Cress (Arabis divaricata)
Drummond's Rock Cress (Arabis drummondii)
Hairy Rock Cress (Arabis hirsuta)
Holboell's Rock Cress (Arabis holboellii)
Western Wallflower (Erysimum asperum)
Smallflower Wallflower (Erysimum inconspicuum)
Northern Bladderpod (Lesquerella arenosa)
Louisiana Bladderpod (Lesquerella ludoviciana)
Double Bladderpod (Physaria brassicoides)
Prince's Plume (Stanleya pinnata)

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Capparidaceae (The Caper Family)
Rocky Mountain Beeplant (Cleome serrulata)
Clammy Weed (Polanisia dodecandra)

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Saxifragaceae (The Saxifrage Family)
Richardson's Alumroot (Heuchera richardsonii)

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Rosaceae (The Rose Family)
Little Rose (Chamaerhodos erecta)
Purple Avens (Geum triflorum)
Tall Cinquefoil (Potentilla arguta)
Early Cinquefoil (Potentilla concinna)
Hipp's Cinquefoil (Potentilla hippiana)
Pennsylvania Cinquefoil (Potentilla pensylvanica)
Prairie Wild Rose (Rosa arkansana)

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Fabaceae (The Bean Family)
Leadplant (Amorpha canescens)
Dwarf Wild Indigo (Amorpha nana)
Lavender Milk-vetch (Astragalus adsurgens)
Two-grooved Milk-vetch (Astralagus bisulcatus)
Canada Milk-vetch (Astragalus canadensis)
Painted Milk-vetch (Astragalus ceramicus)
Groundplum Milk-vetch (Astragalus crassicarpus)
Yellow Tufted Milk-vetch (Astragalus gilviflorus)
Slender Milk-vetch (Astragalus gracilis)
Lotus Milk-vetch (Astragalus lotiflorus)
Missouri Milk-vetch (Astragalus missouriensis)
Tine-leaved Milk-vetch (Astragalus pectinatus)
Creamy Poison-vetch (Astragalus racemosus)
Pulse Milk-vetch (Astragalus tenellus)
Bent-flowered Milk-vetch (Astragalus vexilliflexus)
White Prairie Clover (Dalea candida)
Nineanther Dalea (Dalea enneandra)
Purple Prairie Clover (Dalea purpureum)
Silky Prairie Clover (Dalea villosa)
Wild Licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota)
Plains Sweet-broom (Hedysarum boreale)
Silvery Lupine (Lupinus argenteus)
Pursh's Lotus (Lotus purshianus)
Small Lupine (Lupinus pusillus)
Slender Locoweed (Oxytropis campestris)
Purple Locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii)
Showy Locoweed (Oxytropis splendens)
Silver-leaf Scurf Pea (Psoralea argophylla)
Breadroot Scurf Pea (Psoralea esculenta)
Smoothseed Wild Bean (Strophostyles leiosperma)
Golden Pea (Thermopsis rhombifolia)
American Vetch (Vicia americana)

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Oxalidaceae (The Wood Sorrel Family)
Violet Wood Sorrel (Oxalis violacea)

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Linaceae (The Flax Family)
Blue Flax (Linum perenne var. lewisii)
Grooved Flax (Linum sulcatum)

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Polygalaceae (The Milkwort Family)
White Milkwort (Polygala alba)
Seneca Snakeroot (Polygala senega)

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Euphorbiaceae (The Spurge Family)
Snow-on-the-Mountain (Euphorbia marginata)
Spoonleaf Spurge (Euphorbia spathulata)

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Malvaceae (The Mallow Family)
Red False Mallow (Sphaeralcea coccinea)

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Violaceae (The Violet Family)
Small Blue Violet (Viola adunca)
Nuttall's Violet (Viola nuttallii)
Prairie Violet (Viola pedatifida)

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Loasaceae (The Loasa Family)
Ten-petal Mentzelia (Mentzelia decapetala)

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Cactaceae (The Cactus Family)
Missouri Pincushion Cactus (Coryphantha missouriensis)
Common Pincushion Cactus (Coryphantha vivipara)
Fragile Pricklypear (Opuntia fragilis)
Plains Pricklypear (Opuntia polyacantha)

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Onagraceae (The Evening Primrose Family)
Yellow Evening Primrose (Calylophus serrulatus)
Scarlet Gaura (Gaura coccinea)
Prairie Evening Primrose (Oenothera albicaulis)
Gumbo Lily (Oenothera caespitosa)
White-stemmed Evening Primrose (Oenothera nuttallii)
Gray Common Evening Primrose (Oenothera villosa)

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Primulaceae (The Primrose Family)
Western Rock Jasmine (Androsace occidentalis)

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Apiaceae (The Parsley Family)
Stemless Cymopterus (Cymopterus acaulis)
Hairyseed Lomatium (Lomatium foeniculaceum)
Largeseed Lomatium (Lomatium macrocarpum)
Oriental Lomatium (Lomatium orientale)
Spreadstem Musineon (Musineon divaricatum)
Ovalleaf Golden Alexanders (Zizea aptera)

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Gentianaceae (The Gentian Family)
Northern Gentian (Gentiana affinis)
Bitter Gentian (Gentianella amarella)
Closed Gentian (Gentiana andrewsii)
Ovalleaf Fringed Gentian (Gentianopsis crinita)
Downy Gentian (Gentiana puberulenta)

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Apocynaceae (The Dogbane Family)
Prairie Dogbane (Apocynum sibiricum)

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Asclepiadaceae (The Milkweed Family)
Ovalleaf Milkweed (Asclepias ovalifolia)
Plains Milkweed (Asclepias pumila)
Showy Milkweed (Asclepias speciosa)
Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
Whorled Milkweed (Asclepias verticillata)
Green Milkweed (Asclepias viridiflora)

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Polemoniaceae (The Phlox Family)
Narrow-leaved Collomia (Collomia linearis)
Alyssum-leaved Phlox (Phlox alyssifolia)
Plains Phlox (Phlox andicola)
Hood's Phlox (Phlox hoodii)
Prairie Phlox (Phlox pilosa)

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Hydrophyllaceae (The Waterleaf Family)
Scorpionweed (Phacelia hastata)

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Boraginaceae (The Borage Family)
Butte Candle (Cryptantha celosioides)
Indian Paint (Lithospermum canescens)
Narrow-leaved Puccoon (Lithospermum incisum)
Wild Forget-me-not (Mertensia lanceolata)
False Gromwell (Onosmodium molle)

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Lamiaceae (The Mint Family)
Drummond False Pennyroyal (Hedeoma drummondii)
Rough False Pennyroyal (Hedeoma hispidum)
Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)
Virginia Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum virginianum)

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Solanaceae (The Nightshade Family)
Clammy Ground Cherry (Physalis heterophylla)
Virginia Ground Cherry (Physalis virginiana)
Buffalo Bur (Solanum rostratum)

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Scrophulariaceae (The Figwort Family)
Rough Gerardia (Agalinis aspera)
Slender Gerardia (Agalinis tenuifolia)
Downy Paintbrush (Castilleja sessiliflora)
Owl Clover (Orthocarpus luteus)
White Beardtongue (Penstemon albidus)
Narrow Beardtongue (Penstemon angustifolius)
Canada Lousewort (Pedicularis canadensis)
Crested Beardstongue (Penstemon eriantherus)
Slender Beardtongue (Penstemon gracilis)
Large Beardtongue (Penstemon grandiflorus)
Blue Beardtongue (Penstemon nitidus)

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Orobanchaceae (The Broomrape Family)
Fascicled Broomrape (Orobanche fasciculata)

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Plantaginaceae (The Plantain Family)
Patagonian Plantain (Plantago patagonica)

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Rubiaceae (The Madder Family)
Northern Bedstraw (Galium boreale)

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Campanulaceae (The Bellflower Family)
Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia)
Slender-fruited Venus' Looking Glass (Triodanis leptocarpa)

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Lobeliaceae (The Lobelia Family)
Pale-spike Lobelia (Lobelia spicata)

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Asteraceae (The Aster Family)
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
False Dandelion (Agoseris glauca)
Western Ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya)
Pink Pussy-toes (Antennaria microphylla)
Field Pussy-toes (Antennaria neglecta)
Northern Pussy-toes (Antennaria neodioica)
Arnica (Arnica fulgens)
Western Sagewort (Artemisia campestris)
Silky Wormwood (Artemisia dracunculus)
Fringed Sage (Artemisia frigida)
White Sage (Artemisia ludoviciana)
White Aster (Aster ericoides)
Aromatic Aster (Aster oblongifolius)
Small Clustered Aster (Aster pansus)
False Yarrow (Chaenactis douglasii)
Golden Aster (Chrysopsis villosa)
Stinky Rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus)
Flodman's Thistle (Cirsium flodmanii)
Wavyleaf Thistle (Cirsium undulatum)
Occidental Hawk's Beard (Crepis occidentalis)
Smooth Hawk's Beard (Crepis runcinata)
Fetid Marigold (Dyssodia papposa)
Purple Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia)
Cutleaf Fleabane (Erigeron compositus)
Manyflower Fleabane (Erigeron glabellus)
Philadelphia Fleabane (Erigeron philadelphicus)
Low Fleabane (Erigeron pumilus)
Daisy Fleabane (Erigeron strigosus)
Leafystem Fleabane (Erigeron subtrinervis)
Blanketflower (Gaillardia aristata)
Curlycup Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa)
Broom Snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae)
Large-flowered Goldenweed (Haplopappus armerioides)
Cutleaf Ironplant (Haplopappus spinulosus)
False Sunflower (Heliopsis helianthoides)
Maxmillian Sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani)
Plains Sunflower (Helianthus petiolaris)
Stiff Sunflower (Helianthus rigidus)
Northern Hawkweed (Hieracium umbellatum)
Slimleaf Hymenopappus (Hymenopappus tenuifolius)
Stemless Hymenoxys (Hymenoxys acaulis)
Colorado Rubber Plant (Hymenoxys richardsonii)
Iva Poverty Weed (Iva axillaris)
False Boneset (Kuhnia eupatorioides)
Blue Lettuce (Lactuca oblongifolia)
Round-headed Blazing Star (Liatris ligulistylis)
Narrow-leaved Blazing Star (Liatris punctata)
Tall Blazing Star (Liatris pycnostachya)
Skeleton Weed (Lygodesmia juncea)
Hoary Aster (Machaeranthera canescens)
Nuttall Goldenweed (Machaeranthera grindelioides)
Stemless False Dandelion (Microseris cuspidata)
Northern Bahia (Picradeniopsis oppositifolia)
Racemose Rattlesnake-root (Prenanthes racemosa)
Prairie Coneflower (Ratibida columnifera)
Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)
Gray Ragwort (Senecio canus)
Lambstongue Ragwort (Senecio integerrimus)
Platte Ragwort (Senecio plattensis)
Threetooth Ragwort (Senecio tridenticulatus)
Canada Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis)
Prairie Goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis)
Soft Goldenrod (Solidago mollis)
Gray Goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis)
Rigid Goldenrod (Solidago rigida)
Desert Wirelettuce (Stephanomeria runcinata)
Northern Greenthread (Thelesperma marginatum)
Easter Daisy (Townsendia exscapa)
Golden Crownbeard (Verbesina encelioides)

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