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Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants of the Northern Great Plains

41. Lamiaceae, the Mint Family

7. Teucrium L. -- Germander

1. Teucrium canadense L. -- American germander

Rhizomatous, sometimes stoloniferous perennial 3-10 dm tall; stems simple or branched, spreading pilose to decurved pubescent. Leaves with petioles mostly 5-15 mm long, the blades ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 4-12(16) cm long, 1.5-4(6) cm wide, finely pubescent especially beneath, acute-tipped, finely serrate, cuneate to rounded at the base. Inflorescence of 1-many continuous, terminal, bracteate racemes; bracts narrowly lanceolate, mostly surpassing the calyces; pedicels 2-4 mm long. Flowers purple to lavender or pink, rarely white; calyx nearly regular, purple or green, 4.5-7 mm long, covered with long silky hairs and very short glandular ones, the lobes triangular, acute to acuminate, 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the calyx; corolla irregular, 10-13 mm long, very finely glandular-pubescent, upper lip absent, lower lip prominent, the other 4 corolla lobes positioned on its lateral margins; stamens 4, arched over the corolla. Nutlets golden, ovoid, 1.5-2.4 mm long, glandular. Jul--Sep. Marshes, wet meadows, ditches, shores, stream banks and other wet or moist places; common; (Circumboreal, in N.Amer. across s Can., throughout the U.S. and into Mex.).

Plants of this region are var. boreale (Bicknell) Shinners, formerly known as var. occidentale (A. Gray) McCl. & Epl. The var. canadense is reported from Union Co., SD, and otherwise occurs from e and s NE southward into KS. It differs in having the calyx appressed pubescent or canescent, sometimes with scattered long hairs, eglandular or with sessile glands, the calyx teeth broadly ovate to triangular, usually obtuse.


McClintock, E. and C. Epling.  1946.  A revision of Teucrium in
     the New World.  Brittonia 5:491-510.

Shinners, L. H.  1963.  The varieties of Teucrium canadense
     (Labiatae). Sida 1:182-183.
GIF- Species Photo/Drawing

Teucrium canadense, inflorescence. Photo courtesy U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
GIF- Distribution Map

Map key

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