Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants of the Northern Great Plains
41. Lamiaceae, the Mint Family
7. Teucrium L. -- Germander
1. Teucrium canadense L. -- American germander
Rhizomatous, sometimes stoloniferous perennial 3-10 dm tall; stems simple
or branched, spreading pilose to decurved pubescent. Leaves with petioles
mostly 5-15 mm long, the blades ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate,
4-12(16) cm long, 1.5-4(6) cm wide, finely pubescent especially beneath, acute-tipped,
finely serrate, cuneate to rounded at the base. Inflorescence of 1-many
continuous, terminal, bracteate racemes; bracts narrowly lanceolate, mostly
surpassing the calyces; pedicels 2-4 mm long. Flowers purple to lavender
or pink, rarely white; calyx nearly regular, purple or green, 4.5-7 mm
long, covered with long silky hairs and very short glandular ones, the lobes
triangular, acute to acuminate, 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the calyx; corolla
irregular, 10-13 mm long, very finely glandular-pubescent, upper lip absent,
lower lip prominent, the other 4 corolla lobes positioned on its lateral margins;
stamens 4, arched over the corolla. Nutlets golden, ovoid, 1.5-2.4
mm long, glandular. Jul--Sep. Marshes, wet meadows, ditches, shores, stream
banks and other wet or moist places; common; (Circumboreal, in N.Amer. across
s Can., throughout the U.S. and into Mex.).
Plants of this region are var. boreale (Bicknell) Shinners, formerly
known as var. occidentale (A. Gray) McCl. & Epl. The var. canadense
is reported from Union Co., SD, and otherwise occurs from e and s NE southward
into KS. It differs in having the calyx appressed pubescent or canescent,
sometimes with scattered long hairs, eglandular or with sessile glands, the
calyx teeth broadly ovate to triangular, usually obtuse.
McClintock, E. and C. Epling. 1946. A revision of Teucrium in
the New World. Brittonia 5:491-510.
Shinners, L. H. 1963. The varieties of Teucrium canadense
(Labiatae). Sida 1:182-183.
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