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Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants of the Northern Great Plains

49. Asteraceae, the Aster Family

10. Euthamia Nutt.

1. Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. -- Narrow-leaved goldenrod


Erect rhizomatous perennial 3-9 dm tall; stem usually simple below and branched above, leafy except in the lower portion where the leaves are deciduous, glabrous or with scabrous lines decurrent from the leaf bases. Leaves simple, alternate, sessile, linear to linear-lanceolate or linear-elliptic, 2-10 cm long, 2-10 mm wide, 3- to 5-nerved, glabrous or scabrous on the margins and midrib, glandular-punctate, acute to acuminate, entire. Heads small, radiate, 20- to 35-flowered, usually numerous in flat-topped clusters comprising a corymbiform inflorescence; involucres campanulate to turbinate, 3-5 mm high, glutinous, the bracts in few to several series, imbricate, yellowish or green-tipped with a chartaceous base, outer ones ovate and obtuse, inner ones oblong to linear-oblong, obtuse to acute or acuminate; receptacle small, flat or convex, naked; ray florets pistillate, more numerous than the disk florets, the ligules yellow, 1-3 mm long; disk florets perfect, yellow; style branches flattened, puberulent. Achenes several-nerved, ca. 1 mm long, short-hairy; pappus of numerous white capillary bristles. Late Jul--Sep. Fresh wet meadows, springs, fens, seepage areas, shores and stream banks, often where sandy or gravelly; frequent in e and c ND, e and sw SD, n NE and e WY; (Newf. and Que. to B.C., s to VA, AL, TX and NM). Solidago graminifolia (L.) Salisb.

The prevalent phase of E. graminifolia in the northern part of our area is var. major (Michx.) Moldenke, distinguished by the usually acute-tipped leaves which are obscurely glandular-punctate, and the heads containing 20-35 florets. The var. graminifolia is similar except the leaves have attenuate tips and are conspicuously punctate under magnification. The latter occurs infrequently in se ND.

Euthamia gymnospermoides Greene is a similar species that is uncommon and scattered from se ND to NE. It tends to favor drier sites than the above and differs in having heads with 12-20 florets and narrower, conspicuously punctate leaves with only 1-3 nerves. This entity has been treated by many authors as Solidago graminifolia var. media (Greene) S.K. Harris.

GIF- Distribution Map

Map key


Previous Section -- Eupatorium perfoliatum L. -- Boneset
Return to Family -- Asteraceae - The Aster Family
Next Section -- Helenium autumnale L.

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Menlo Park, CA [caww55]