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Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants of the Northern Great Plains

Echinochloa Beauv. -- Barnyardgrass

Stout, weedy annuals (1)3-10 dm tall, with flat glabrous leaf blades 3-16 mm wide and terminal panicles of few to many densely flowered, racemose branches; culms solitary or few to several, erect to decumbent, rather succulent; sheaths glabrous or puberulent at the base; ligules absent. Spikelets nearly sessile, ovoid, containing one terminal fertile floret and one sterile floret, disarticulating below the glumes; glumes very unequal, the first glume broad with a pointed tip, 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the spikelet (excluding awns, if present), 3-nerved, the second glume broadly ovate, acuminate to apiculate, hispid or papillose-hispid on the back, especially on the nerves, 5-nerved, the outer 2 nerves marginal; sterile lemma resembling the second glume in size and vestiture, awned or awnless; palea of the sterile floret membranous, 1/2 to 3/4 the length of the sterile lemma body; fertile lemma ovate to elliptic, plano-convex, firm, shiny, 2-3 mm long including the short beak; palea of the fertile floret about as long as the lemma body, its margins included by the inrolled margins of the lemma, the tip free. Grain retained inside the fertile floret.

For information on related taxa sometimes encountered in wetland habitats, see the discussion under Panicum capillare.


Gould, F. W., M. A. Ali and D. E. Fairbrothers.  1972.  A 	
     revision of Echinochloa in the United States.  Amer. Midl. 	
     Naturalist 87:36-59.
Lead Characteristic Go To
1 Firm, shiny apex of the fertile lemma obtuse or broadly acute, sharply differentiated from the often shriveled beak, the lemma body and the beak separated by a line of minute hairs. E. crusgalli
1 Firm, shiny apex of the fertile lemma narrowly acute or acuminate, gradually tapering to the usually stiff beak, the lemma body and beak not separated by a line of minute hairs (the beak itself commonly puberulent). E. muricata

63. Poaceae, the Grass Family
11. Echinochloa Beauv. -- Barnyardgrass
1. Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.
2. Echinochloa muricata (Beauv.) Fern.

Return to Family -- Poaceae - The Grass Family
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