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Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants of the Northern Great Plains

Verbenaceae - The Vervain Family


Perennial herbs with 4-angled, erect or mostly prostrate stems and simple, opposite, serrate leaves. Inflorescence of dense, terminal or axillary, bracteate spikes, these elongate or globose to short-cylindric, elongating as flowering progresses upward from the base. Flowers small and numerous, perfect, slightly to obviously irregular; calyx 5-toothed or deeply 2-parted; corolla 5- or 4-lobed, bilabiate or slightly so, blue-violet or white to bluish or purple-tinged; stamens 4, didynamous, epipetalous, included by the corolla or slightly exserted; pistil 2-carpellary, style terminal (not gynobasic as in Lamiaceae), ovary superior, 4- or 2-celled. Fruit developing inside the calyx, splitting lengthwise into 4 or 2 nutlets at maturity, each nutlet containing a seed.

Lead Characteristic Go To
1 Flowers white to bluish or purplish, in globose to short-cylindric spikes from the axils. Genus Lippia
1 Flowers blue-violet, in elongate, terminal spikes. Genus Verbena


40. Verbenaceae, the Vervain Family
1. Lippia L. -- Fog-Fruit
1. Lippia lanceolata Michx. -- Northern fog-fruit
2. Verbena L. -- Vervain
1. Verbena hastata L. -- Blue vervain


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