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Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants of the Northern Great Plains

Scrophulariaceae - The Figwort Family


Annual and perennial herbs of various habits; stems usually terete (noticeably 4-angled in Mimulus alatus and M. ringens), or plants acaulescent (Limosella). Leaves simple, opposite or seldom alternate, or the leaves all basal (Limosella), sessile or petioled, exstipulate. Flowers perfect, nearly regular to highly irregular, 5-merous or apparently 4-merous, showy or not, variously colored, borne singly or few together in leaf axils, or the flowers numerous in terminal or axillary, bracteate racemes or spikes; calyx cylindric to campanulate or hemispheric, sometimes 2-lipped, or the sepals distinct, similar or unequal; corolla 4- or 5-lobed, tubular and often bilabiate to rotate and nearly regular, sometimes inconspicuous; stamens usually 4, epipetalous, often didynamous, sometimes 1 pair reduced to antherless staminodes or totally absent so that only 2 functional stamens are present; pistil 2-carpellary, style simple, stigma entire or 2-lobed, or stigmas 2, ovary superior, many-ovuled, with axile placentation. Fruit a septicidal or loculicidal, many-seeded capsule, usually partly enclosed by the persistent calyx.

Lead Characteristic Go To
1 Leaves all basal, tufted. Genus Limosella
1 Leaves all or partly cauline. Lead 2
2 Leaves pinnatifid. Lead 3
2 Leaves entire to serrate or undulate, but not pinnatifid. Lead 4
3 Plants annual; flowers axillary. Genus Leucospora
3 Plants perennial; flowers in terminal spikes. Genus Pedicularis
4 Functional stamens 4. Lead 5
4 Functional stamens 2 (a pair of antherless staminodes may also be present). Lead 7
5 Leaves linear, 1-3 mm wide. Genus Agalinis
5 Leaves not linear, wider than 3 mm. Lead 6
6 Calyx tubular, the lobes shorter than the tubular portion. Genus Mimulus
6 Calyx not tubular, the sepals distinct and imbricate. Genus Bacopa
7 Flowers in axillary or terminal racemes; calyx lobes 4. Genus Veronica
7 Flowers single and pedicelled in leaf axils; calyx lobes 5. Lead 8
8 Corolla white to yellow; pair of staminodes absent or very minute; plants glandular-pubescent at least above. Genus Gratiola
8 Corolla blue-violet; pair of staminodes present; plants glabrous throughout. Genus Lindernia


45. Scrophulariaceae, the Figwort Family
1. Agalinis Raf. -- Gerardia
1. Agalinis purpurea (L.) Penn.
2. Agalinis tenuifolia (Vahl.) Raf
2. Bacopa Aubl. -- Water hyssop
1. Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst.
3. Gratiola L. -- Hedge hyssop
1. Gratiola neglecta Torr.
4. Leucospora Nutt. -- Leucospora
1. Leucospora multifida (Michx.) Nutt.
5. Limosella L. -- Mudwort
1. Limosella aquatica L.
6. Lindernia All. -- False pimpernel
1. Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell
7. Mimulus L. -- Monkey-flower
1. Mimulus alatus Ait. -- Sharpwing monkey-flower
2. Mimulus glabratus H.B.K. -- Roundleaf monkey-flower
3. Mimilus guttatus DC. -- Common yellow monkey-flower
4. Mimulus ringens L. -- Allegheny monkey-flower
8. Pedicularis L. -- Lousewort
1. Pedicularis canadensis L.
2. Pedicularis lanceolata Michx.
9. Veronica L. -- Speedwell
1. Veronica americana (Raf.) Schwein. ex Benth. -- Brooklime
2. Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. -- Water speedwell
3. Veronica catenata Pennell
4. Veronica peregrina L. -- Purslane speedwell
5. Veronica scutellata L. -- Marsh speedwell


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