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Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants of the Northern Great Plains


1. Equisetaceae, the Horsetail Family
1. Equisetum L. -- Horsetail, scouring rush
1. Equisetum arvense L. -- Common horsetail
2. Equisetum fluviatile L. -- Water horsetail
3. Equisetum hyemale L. -- Common scouring rush
4. Equisetum laevigatum A. Br. -- Smooth scouring rush
5. Equisetum palustre L. -- Marsh horsetail
6. Equisetum pratense Ehrh. -- Meadow horsetail
7. Equisetum sylvaticum L. -- Wood horsetail

2. Isoetaceae, the Quillwort Family
1. Isoetes L.
1. Isoetes melanopoda Gay & Durieu -- Blackfoot quillwort

3. Ophioglossaceae, the Adder's-tongue Family
1. Ophioglossum L. -- Adder's tongue
1. Ophioglossum vulgatum L.

4. Polypodiaceae, the Polypody Family
1. Adiantum L. -- Maidenhair fern
1. Adaintum capillus-veneris -- Venus'-hair fern
2. Athyrium Roth
1. Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth -- Lady fern
3. Dryopteris Adans. -- Shield fern
1. Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H. P. Fuchs -- Spinulose woodfern
2. Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. Gray -- Crested fern
4. Matteuccia Todaro -- Ostrich fern
1. Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro
5. Onoclea L. -- Sensitive fern
1. Onoclea sensibilis L.
6. Thelypteris Schmidel
1. Thelypteris palustris Schott -- Marsh fern

5. Marsileaceae, the Pepperwort Family
1. Marsilea L. -- Pepperwort, water clover
1. Marsilea vestita Hook. & Grev.

6. Salviniaceae, the Water Fern Family
1. Azolla Lam. -- Mosquito fern
1. Azolla mexicana Presl

7. Nymphaeaceae, the Water Lily Family
1. Nuphar Small
1. Nuphar luteum (L.) Sibth. & Small -- Yellow water lily, spatterdock
2. Nymphaea L. -- Water Lily
1. Nymphaea odorata Ait. -- Fragrant white water lily
2. Nymphaea tuberosa Paine -- White water lily

8. Ceratophyllaceae, the Hornwort Family
1. Ceratophyllum L. -- Hornwort, coontail
1. Ceratophyllum demersum L.

9. Ranunculaceae, the Buttercup Family
1. Anemone L.
1. Anemone canadensis L.-- Meadow anemone
2. Caltha L. -- Marsh marigold, cowslip
1. Caltha palustris L.
3. Myosurus L. -- Mouse-tail
1. Myosurus minimus L.
4. Ranunculus L. -- Buttercup, crowfoot
1. Ranunculus cardiophyllus Hook.
2. Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh -- Seaside buttercup
3. Ranunculus flabellaris Raf. -- Yellow water-crowfoot
4. Ranunculus flammula L. -- Spearwort
5. Ranunculus gmelinii DC. -- Yellow water-crowfoot
6. Ranunculus hispidus Michx. -- Marsh buttercup
7. Ranunculus longirostris Godr. -- White water-crowfoot
8. Ranunculus macounii Britt. -- Macoun's buttercup
9. Ranunculus pensylvanicus L. f. -- Bristly crowfoot
10. Ranunculus sceleratus L. -- Cursed crowfoot
11. Ranunculus subrigidus W.B. Drew -- White water-crowfoot

10. Urticaceae, the Nettle Family
1. Pilea Lindl. -- Clearweed
1. Pilea fontana (Lunell) Rydb.
2. Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray
2. Urtica L. -- Nettle
1. Urtica dioica L. -- Stinging nettle

11. Betulaceae, the Birch Family
1. Alnus P. Mill. -- Alder
1. Alnus incana (L.) Moench -- Speckled alder
2. Betula L. -- Birch
1. Betula glandulosa Michx. -- Dwarf birch, swamp birch

12. Chenopodiaceae, the Goosefoot Family
1. Atriplex L.
1. Atriplex subspicata (Nutt.) Rydb. -- Spearscale
2. Chenopodium L. -- Goosefoot
1. Chenopodium glaucum L. -- Oak-leaved goosefoot
2. Chenopodium rubrum L. -- Red goosefoot
3. Salicornia L. -- Glasswort, saltwort
1. Salicornia rubra A. Nels.
4. Suaeda Forsk. -- Sea blite
1. Suaeda depressa (Pursh) S. Wats.

13. Amaranthaceae, the Pigweed Family
1. Amaranthus L. -- Pigweed
1. Amaranthus rudis Sauer -- Water hemp
2. Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer -- Tall water hemp

14. Caryophyllaceae, the Pink Family
1. Cerastium L.--Mouse-ear chickweed
1. Cerastium brachypodum (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Robins.
2. Cerastium nutans Raf.
2. Spergularia J. & C. Presl -- Sand-spurry
1. Spergularia marina (L.) Griseb. -- Salt-marsh sand-spurry
3. Stellaria L. -- Stitchwort
1. Stellaria crassifolia Ehrh.
2. Stellaria longifolia Muhl. ex Willd. -- Long-leaved stitchwort
3. Stellaria longipes Goldie

15. Polygonaceae, the Smartweed Family
1. Polygonum L. -- Smartweed, knotweed, tear-thumb
1. Polygonum amphibium L. -- Water smartweed
2. Polygonum bicorne Raf. -- Pink smartweed
3. Polygonum coccineum Muhl. ex Willd. -- Marsh smartweed
4. Polygonum hydropiper L. -- Water pepper
5. Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. -- Mild water pepper
6. Polygonum lapathifolium L. -- Pale smartweed
7. Polygonum pensylvanicum L. -- Pennsylvania smartweed
8. Polygonum persicaria L. -- Lady's thumb
9. Polygonum punctatum Ell. -- Water smartweed
10. Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. -- Bushy knotweed
11. Polygonum sagittatum L. -- Tear-thumb, arrow-vine
2. Rumex L. -- Dock
1. Rumex altissimus Wood -- Pale dock
2. Rumex crispus L. -- Sour dock, curled dock
3. Rumex maritimus L. -- Golden dock
4. Rumex mexicanus Meisn. -- Mexican dock, willow-leaved dock
5. Rumex occidentalis S. Wats. -- Western dock
6. Rumex orbiculatus A. Gray -- Great water dock
7. Rumex patientia L. -- Patience dock
8. Rumex pseudonatronatus Borbas
9. Rumex stenophyllus Ledeb.

16. Elatinaceae, the Waterwort Family
1. Bergia L.
1. Bergia texana (Hook.) Walp.
2. Elatine L. -- Waterwort
1. Elatine triandra Schkuhr

17. Clusiaceae, the Mangosteen Family
1. Hypericum L. -- St. John's-wort
1. Hypericum majus (A. Gray) Britt. -- Greater St. John's-wort
2. Triadenum Raf. -- Marsh St. John's-wort
1. Triadenum fraseri (Spach) Gl.

18. Droseraceae, the Sundew Family
1. Drosera L. -- Sundew
1. Drosera rotundifolia L. -- Round-leaved sundew

19. Violaceae, the Violet Family
1. Viola L. -- Violet
1. Viola nephrophylla Greene -- Bog violet

20. Tamaricaceae, the Tamarisk Family
1. Tamarix L. -- Tamarisk, salt cedar
1. Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.

21. Salicaceae, the Willow Family
1. Populus L. -- Aspen, cottonwood, poplar
1. Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. -- Cottonwood
2. Salix L. -- Willow
1. Salix alba L. -- White willow
2. Salix amygdaloides Anderss. -- Peachleaf willow
3. Salix bebbiana Sarg. -- Beaked willow
4. Salix candida Fluegee -- Sage-leaved willow, hoary willow
5. Salix discolor Muhl. -- Pussy willow
6. Salix eriocephala Michx. -- Diamond willow, Missouri willow
7. Salix exigua Nutt. -- Sandbar willow, coyote willow
8. Salix fragilis L. -- Crack-willow, brittle willow
9. Salix humilis Marsh. -- Prairie willow
10. Salix lucida Muhl. -- Shining willow
11. Salix lutea Nutt. -- Yellow willow
12. Salix maccalliana Rowlee
13. Salix pedicellaris Pursh -- Bog willow
14. Salix pentandra L. -- Laurel-leaved willow
15. Salix petiolaris Sm. -- Meadow willow
16. Salix planifolia Pursh -- Planeleaf willow
17. Salix pseudomonticola Ball -- Serviceberry willow
18. Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern. -- Autumn willow

22. Brassicaceae, the Mustard Family
1. Barbarea R. Br. -- Winter cress
1. Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.
2. Cardamine L. -- Bitter cress
1. Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb) B.S.P. -- Spring cress
2. Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. -- Bitter Cress
3. Nasturtium R. Br. -- Watercress
1. Nasturtium officinale R. Br.
4. Rorippa Scop. -- Yellow cress
1. Rorippa austriaca (Crantz) Bess. -- Austrian field cress
2. Rorippa calycina (Engelm.) Rydb.
3. Rorippa curvipes Greene
4. Rorippa palustris (L.) Bess. -- Bog yellow cress
5. Rorippa sinuata (Nutt.) A.S. Hitchc. -- Spreading yellow cress
6. Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Bess. -- Creeping yellow cress
7. Rorippa tenerrima Greene
8. Rorippa truncata (Jeps.) Stuckey
5. Thelypodium Endl.
1. Thelypodium integrifolium (Nutt.) Endl.

23. Primulaceae, the Primrose Family
1. Glaux L. -- Sea milkwort
1. Glaux maritima L.
2. Lysimachia L. -- Loosestrife
1. Lysimachia ciliata L. -- Fringed loosestrife
2. Lysimachia hybrida Michx.
3. Lysimachia quadriflora Sims
4. Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. -- Water loosestrife
3. Primula L. -- Primrose
1. Primula incana M. E. Jones

24. Grossulariaceae, the Gooseberry Family
1. Ribes L. -- Currant, gooseberry
1. Ribes americanum Mill. -- Wild black currant
2. Ribes missouriense Nutt. -- Missouri gooseberry
3. Ribes triste Pall. -- Swamp currant

25. Saxifragaceae, the Saxifrage Family
1. Mitella L. -- Bishop's cap
1. Mitella nuda L.
2. Parnassia L. -- Grass-of-Parnassus
1. Parnassia glauca Raf.
2. Parnassia palustris L.
3. Parnassia parviflora DC.
3. Penthorum L. -- Ditch stonecrop
1. Penthorum sedoides L.

26. Rosaceae, the Rose Family
1. Geum L. -- Avens
1. Geum rivale L. -- Water or purple avens
2. Potentilla L. -- Cinquefoil
1. Potentilla anserina L. -- Silverweed
2. Potentilla norvegica L. -- Strawberryweed
3. Potentilla palustris (L.) Scop. -- Bog cinquefoil
4. Potentilla paradoxa Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray -- Bushy cinquefoil
5. Potentilla rivalis Nutt. -- Brook cinquefoil
3. Spiraea L. -- Meadowsweet
1. Spiraea alba Du Roi

27. Mimosaceae, the Mimosa Family
1. Desmanthus Willd.
1. Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. -- Prairie mimosa

28. Fabaceae, the Bean Family
1. Amorpha L.
1. Amorpha fruticosa L. -- False indigo
2. Desmodium Desv. -- Tickclover
1. Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. -- Canada tickclover
3. Glycyrrhiza L. -- Licorice
1. Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh -- Wild licorice
4. Lathyrus L. -- Vetchling
1. Lathyrus palustris L. -- Marsh vetchling

29. Haloragaceae, the Water Milfoil Family
1. Myriophyllum L. -- Water milfoil
1. Myriophyllum exalbescens Fern.
2. Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx.
3. Myriophyllum pinnatum (Walt.) B.S.P.
4. Myriophyllum verticillatum L.

30. Lythraceae, the Loosestrife Family
1. Ammannia L. -- Toothcup
1. Ammannia auriculata Willd.
2. Ammannia coccinea Rottb.
3. Ammannia robusta Heer & Regel
2. Lythrum L. -- Loosestrife
1. Lythrum alatum Pursh
2. Lythrum salicaria L. -- Purple loosestrife
3. Rotala L. -- Toothcup
1. Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne

31. Onagraceae, the Evening Primrose Family
1. Boisduvalia Spach
1. Boisduvalia glabella (Nutt.) Walp
2. Epilobium L. -- Willow herb
1. Epilobium ciliatum Raf.
2. Epilobium coloratum Biehler -- Purple-leaved willow herb
3. Epilobium leptophyllum Raf. -- Narrow-leaved willow herb
3. Ludwigia L. -- Seedbox
1. Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. -- Marsh seedbox
2. Ludwigia polycarpa Short & Peter -- Many-seed seedbox

32. Cornaceae, the Dogwood Family
1. Cornus L. -- Dogwood
1. Cornus stolonifera Michx. -- Res osier

33. Balsaminaceae, the Touch-me-not Family
1. Impatiens L. -- Touch-me-not
1. Impatiens capensis Meerb. -- Spotted touch-me-not
2. Impatiens pallida Nutt. -- Pale touch-me-not

34. Apiaceae, the Parsley Family
1. Berula Hoffm. -- Water parsnip
1. Berula erecta (Huds.) Cov.
2. Cicuta L. -- Water hemlock
1. Cicuta bulbifera L. -- Bulbous water hemlock
2. Cicuta maculata L. -- Common water hemlock
3. Sium L. -- Water parsnip
1. Sium suave Walt.

35. Gentianaceae, the Gentian Family
1. Gentiana L. -- Gentian
1. Gentiana affinis Griseb.
2. Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. -- Closed gentian
2. Gentianopsis Ma -- Fringed Gentian
1. Gentianopsis crinita (Froel.) Ma
2. Gentianopsis procera (Holm.) Ma

36. Apocynaceae, the Dogbane Family
1. Apocynum L. -- Dogbane
1. Apocynum cannabinum L. -- Prairie dogbane, Indian hemp

37. Asclepiadaceae, the Milkweed Family
1. Asclepias L. -- Milkweed
1. Asclepias incarnata L. -- Swamp milkweed

38. Menyanthaceae, the Buckbean Family
1. Menyanthes L. -- Buckbean
1. Menyanthes trifoliata L.

39. Boraginaceae, the Borage Family
1. Heliotropium L.
1. Heliotropium curvassavicum L. -- Seaside heliotrope
2. Plagiobothrys F. & M. -- Popcorn-flower
1. Plagiobothrys scouleri (H. & A.) I.M. Johnst.

40. Verbenaceae, the Vervain Family
1. Lippia L. -- Fog-fruit
1. Lippia lanceolata Michx. -- Northern fog-fruit
2. Verbena L. -- Vervain
1. Verbena hastata L. -- Blue vervain

41. Lamiaceae, the Mint Family
1. Lycopus L. -- Bugleweed
1. Lycopus americanus Muhl. ex Bart. -- American bugleweed
2. Lycopus asper Greene -- Rough bugleweed
3. Lycopus uniflorus Michx.
2. Mentha L. -- Mint
1. Mentha arvensis L. -- Common mint
3. Physostegia Benth. -- Obedient plant
1. Physostegia ledinghammii (Boivin) Cantino
2. Physostegia parviflora Nutt. ex A. Gray
3. Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth.
4. Prunella L. -- Selfheal
1. Prunella vulgaris L.
5. Scutellaria L. -- Skullcap
1. Scutellaria galericulata L. -- Marsh skullcap
2. Scutellaria lateriflora L. -- Blue skullcap
6. Stachys L. -- Hedge-nettle
1. Stachys palustris L.
2. Stachys tenuifolia Willd.
7. Teucrium L. -- Germander
1. Teucrium canadense L. -- American germander

42. Hippuridaceae, the Mare's-tail Family
1. Hippuris L. -- Mare's-tail
1. Hippuris vulgaris L.

43. Callitrichaceae, the Water Starwort Family
1. Callitriche L. -- Water starwort
1. Callitriche hermaphroditica L.
2. Callitriche heterophylla Pursh
3. Callitriche verna L.

44. Plantaginaceae, the Plantain Family
1. Plantago L. -- Plantain
1. Plantago eriopoda Torr. -- Alkali plantain
2. Plantago major L. -- Common plantain

45. Scrophulariaceae, the Figwort Family
1. Agalinis Raf. -- Gerardia
1. Agalinis purpurea (L.) Penn.
2. Agalinis tenuifolia (Vahl) Raf.
2. Bacopa Aubl. -- Water hyssop
1. Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst.
3. Gratiola L. -- Hedge hyssop
1. Gratiola neglecta Torr.
4. Leucospora Nutt. -- Leucospora
1. Leucospora multifida (Michx.) Nutt.
5. Limosella L. -- Mudwort
1. Limosella aquatica L.
6. Lindernia All. -- False pimpernel
1. Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell
7. Mimulus L. -- Monkey-flower
1. Mimulus alatus Ait. -- Sharpwing monkey-flower
2. Mimulus glabratus H.B.K. -- Roundleaf monkey-flower
3. Mimilus guttatus DC. -- Common yellow monkey-flower
4. Mimulus ringens L. -- Allegheny monkey-flower
8. Pedicularis L. -- Lousewort
1. Pedicularis canadensis L.
2. Pedicularis lanceolata Michx.
9. Veronica L. -- Speedwell
1. Veronica americana (Raf.) Schwein. ex Benth. -- Brooklime
2. Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. -- Water speedwell
3. Veronica catenata Pennell
4. Veronica peregrina L. -- Purslane speedwell
5. Veronica scutellata L. -- Marsh speedwell

46. Lentibulariaceae, the Bladderwort Family
1. Utricularia L. -- Bladderwort
1. Utricularia intermedia Hayne
2. Utricularia minor L.
3. Utricularia vulgaris L. -- Common bladderwort

47. Campanulaceae, the Bellflower Family
1. Campanula L. -- Bellflower
1. Campanula aparinoides Pursh -- Marsh bellflower
2. Lobelia L. -- Lobelia
1. Lobelia kalmii L. -- Kalm's lobelia
2. Lobelia siphilitica L. -- Blue cardinal-flower
3. Lobelia spicata Lam. -- Pale-spike lobelia

48. Rubiaceae, the Madder Family
1. Galium L. -- Bedstraw
1. Galium labradoricum (Wieg.) Wieg. -- Labrador bedstraw
2. Galium obtusum Bigel. -- Bluntleaf bedstraw
3. Galium trifidum L. -- Small bedstraw

49. Asteraceae, the Aster Family
1. Artemisia L. -- Sage, wormwood
1. Artemisia biennis Willd. -- Biennial wormwood
2. Aster L. -- Aster
1. Aster brachyactis Blake -- Rayless aster
2. Aster hesperius A. Gray -- Marsh aster
3. Aster junciformis Rydb. -- Rush aster
4. Aster lucidulus (A. Gray) Wieg.
5. Aster novae-angliae L. -- New England aster
6. Aster pauciflorus Nutt. -- Few-flowered aster
7. Aster praealtus Poir. -- Willowleaf aster
8. Aster pubentior Cronq.
9. Aster puniceus L. -- Swamp aster
10. Aster simplex Willd. -- Panicled aster
3. Bidens L. -- Beggarticks
1. Bidens bipinnata L. -- Spanish needles
2. Bidens cernua L. -- Nodding beggarticks
3. Bidens comosa (A. Gray) Wieg.
4. Bidens connata Muhl. ex Willd. -- Stick-tights
5. Bidens coronata (L.) Britt. -- Tickseed sunflower
6. Bidens frondosa L.
7. Bidens vulgata Greene
4. Boltonia L'Her -- Boltonia
1. Boltonia asteroides (L.) L'Her
5. Cirsium Mill. -- Thistle
1. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. -- Canada thistle
6. Conyza Less.
1. Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. -- Horseweed
7. Crepis L. -- Hawk's-beard
1. Crepis runcinata (James) T. & G.
8. Erigeron L. -- Fleabane
1. Erigeron lonchophyllus Hook
2. Erigeron philadelphicus L. -- Philadelphia fleabane
9. Eupatorium L.
1. Eupatorium maculatum L. -- Joe-Pye weed
2. Eupatorium perfoliatum L. -- Boneset
10. Euthamia Nutt.
1. Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. -- Narrow-leaved goldenrod
11. Helenium L. -- Sneezeweed
1. Helenium autumnale L.
12. Helianthus L. -- Sunflower
1. Helianthus grosseserratus Martens -- Sawtooth sunflower
2. Helianthus nuttallii T. & G. -- Nuttall's sunflower
13. Petasites Mill. -- Sweet coltsfoot
1. Petasites frigidus (L.) Fries
2. Petasites sagittatus (Pursh) A. Gray
14. Senecio L. -- Ragwort
1. Senecio congestus (R.Br.) DC. -- Swamp ragwort
2. Senecio pseudaureus Rydb.
15. Silphium L. -- Rosin-weed
1. Silphium perfoliatum L. -- Cup plant
16. Solidago L. -- Goldenrod
1. Solidago gigantea Ait. -- Late goldenrod
2. Solidago riddellii Frank -- Riddell's goldenrod
17. Sonchus L. -- Sow thistle
1. Sonchus arvensis L. -- Field sow thistle
18. Vernonia Schreb. -- Ironweed
1. Vernonia fasciculata Michx.
19. Xanthium L. -- Cocklebur
1. Xanthium strumarium L.

50. Butomaceae, the Flowering Rush Family
1. Butomus L. -- Flowering rush
1. Butomus umbellatus L.

51. Alismataceae, the Water Plantain Family
1. Alisma L. -- Water plantain
1. Alisma gramineum Gmel.
2. Alisma plantago-aquatica L.
2. Echinodorus Rich. -- Burhead
1. Echinodorus rostratus (Nutt.) Engelm.
3. Sagittaria L. -- Arrowhead, duck potato
1. Sagittaria brevirostra Mack. & Bush
2. Sagittaria calycina Engelm.
3. Sagittaria cuneata Sheld.
4. Sagittaria graminea Michx.
5. Sagittaria latifolia Willd.
6. Sagittaria rigida Pursh

52. Hydrocharitaceae, the Frog's-bit Family
1. Elodea Michx. -- Waterweed
1. Elodea canadensis L. C. Rich. in Michx.
2. Elodea longivaginata St. John
3. Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John
2. Vallisneria L. -- Eelgrass, Tapegrass, Water-celery
1. Vallisneria americana Michx.

53. Scheuchzeriaceae, the Scheuchzeria Family
1. Scheuchzeria L.
1. Scheuchzeria palustris L.

54. Juncaginaceae, the Arrow-grass Family
1. Triglochin L. -- Arrow-grass
1. Triglochin concinna Davy
2. Triglochin maritima L.
3. Triglochin palustris L.

55. Potamogetonaceae, the Pondweed Family
1. Potamogeton L. -- Pondweed
1. Potamogeton alpinus Balbis
2. Potamogeton amplifolius Tuckerm. -- Largeleaf pondweed
3. Potamogeton crispus L. -- Curly pondweed
4. Potamogeton diversifolius Raf. -- Waterthread pondweed
5. Potamogeton epihydrus Raf. -- Ribbonleaf pondweed
6. Potamogeton filiformis Pers. -- Slender pondweed
7. Potamogeton foliosus Raf. -- Leafy pondweed
8. Potamogeton friesii Rupr.
9. Potamogeton gramineus L. -- Variable pondweed
10. Potamogeton illinoensis Morong -- Illinois pondweed
11. Potamogeton natans L. -- Floatingleaf pondweed
12. Potamogeton nodosus Poir. -- Longleaf pondweed
13. Potamogeton pectinatus L. -- Sago pondweed
14. Potamogeton praelongus Wulf. -- Whitestem pondweed
15. Potamogeton pusillus L. -- Small pondweed, baby pondweed
16. Potamogeton richardsonii (Benn.) Rydb. -- Claspingleaf pondweed
17. Potamogeton strictifolius Benn.
18. Potamogeton vaginatus Turcz. -- Sheathed pondweed
19. Potamogeton zosteriformis Fern. -- Flatstem pondweed

56. Ruppiaceae, the Ditch-grass Family
1. Ruppia L. -- Ditch-grass, widgeon-grass
1. Ruppia maritima L.

57. Najadaceae, the Naiad Family
1. Najas L. -- Naiad
1. Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt
2. Najas guadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus. -- Southern naiad
3. Najas marina L.

58. Zannichelliaceae, the Horned Pondweed Family
1. Zannichellia L. -- Horned pondweed
1. Zannichellia palustris L.

59. Araceae, the Arum Family
1. Acorus L. -- Sweet flag, calamus
1. Acorus calamus L.
2. Calla L. -- Water arum
1. Calla palustris L.

60. Lemnaceae, the Duckweed Family
1. Lemna L. -- Duckweed
1. Lemna aequinoctialis Welw.
2. Lemna gibba L.
3. Lemna minor L.
4. Lemna minuscula Herter
5. Lemna obscura (Austin) Daubs
6. Lemna perpusilla Torr.
7. Lemna trisulca L. -- Star duckweed
8. Lemna turionifera Landolt
2. Spirodela Schleid. -- Duck-meat
1. Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.
3. Wolffia Horkel -- Water-meal
1. Wolffia borealis (Engelm.) Landolt
2. Wolffia columbiana Karst.

61. Juncaceae, the Rush Family
1. Juncus L. -- Rush
1. Juncus alpinus Vill. -- Alpine rush
2. Juncus articulatus L. -- Jointed rush
3. Juncus balticus Willd. -- Baltic rush
4. Juncus brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fern.
5. Juncus bufonius L. -- Toad rush
6. Juncus canadensis Gay ex Laharpe
7. Juncus compressus Jacq.
8. Juncus dudleyi Wieg. -- Dudley's rush
9. Juncus ensifolius Wikst.
10. Juncus gerardii Loisel -- Saltmeadow rush
11. Juncus interior Wieg. -- Inland rush
12. Juncus longistylis Torr.
13. Juncus marginatus Rostk. -- Grassleaf rush
14. Juncus nodosus L. -- Jointed rush
15. Juncus scirpoides Lam.
16. Juncus tenuis Willd. -- Path rush
17. Juncus torreyi Cov. -- Torrey rush
18. Juncus vaseyi Engelm.

62. Cyperaceae, the Sedge Family
1. Bulbostylis Kunth.
1. Bulbostylis capillaris (L.) Clarke
2. Carex L. -- Sedge
1. Carex alopecoidea Tuckerm.
2. Carex aquatilis Wahl. -- Water sedge
3. Carex atherodes Spreng. -- Slough sedge
4. Carex athrostachya Olney
5. Carex aurea Nutt. -- Golden sedge
6. Carex bebbii Olney ex Fern.
7. Carex bicknellii Britt. -- Bicknell's sedge
8. Carex brevior (Dewey) Mack. ex Lunell -- Fescue sedge
9. Carex brunnescens (Pers.) Poir.
10. Carex buxbaumii Wahl.
11. Carex canescens L.
12. Carex capillaris L.
13. Carex chordorrhiza Ehrh. ex L.f.
14. Carex comosa F. Boott
15. Carex crawei Dewey
16. Carex cristatella Britt.
17. Carex diandra Schrank
18. Carex disperma Dewey
19. Carex emoryi Dewey
20. Carex garberi Fern.
21. Carex granularis Muhl. ex Willd. -- Meadow sedge
22. Carex gravida Bailey -- Heavy sedge
23. Carex gynocrates Wormskj. ex Drej.
24. Carex hallii Olney
25. Carex haydenii Dewey
26. Carex hookerana Dewey
27. Carex hyalinolepis Steud. -- Thinscale sedge
28. Carex hystericina Muhl. ex Willd. -- Bottlebrush sedge
29. Carex interior Bailey
30. Carex lacustris Willd.
31. Carex laeviconica Dewey -- Smoothcone sedge
32. Carex lanuginosa Michx. -- Woolly sedge
33. Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh.
34. Carex leptalea Wahl.
35. Carex limosa L.
36. Carex lupulina Willd. -- Hop sedge
37. Carex meadii Dewey -- Mead's sedge
38. Carex microptera Mack.
39. Carex nebraskensis Dewey -- Nebraska sedge
40. Carex praegracilis W. Boott -- Clustered field sedge
41. Carex prairea Dewey
42. Carex pseudo-cyperus L.
43. Carex retrorsa Schwein.
44. Carex rostrata Stokes ex With. -- Beaked sedge
45. Carex sartwellii Dewey
46. Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willd. -- Broom sedge
47. Carex simulata Mack.
48. Carex sterilis Willd.
49. Carex stipata Muhl. ex Willd. -- Saw-beak sedge
50. Carex stricta Lam.
51. Carex sychnocephala Carey
52. Carex tenera Dewey
53. Carex tetanica Schkuhr
54. Carex tribuloides Wahl.
55. Carex vesicaria L.
56. Carex viridula Michx.
57. Carex vulpinoidea Michx. -- Fox sedge
3. Cyperus L. -- Galingale, umbrella sedge
1. Cyperus acuminatus Torr. & Hook.
2. Cyperus aristatus Rottb. -- Awned cyperus
3. Cyperus bipartitus Torr. -- Shining cyperus, brook cyperus
4. Cyperus diandrus Torr. -- Low cyperus
5. Cyperus engelmannii Steud. -- Engelmann's cyperus
6. Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. -- Red-rooted cyperus
7. Cyperus esculentus L. -- Yellow nut-sedge, chufa
8. Cyperus odoratus L. -- Coarse cyperus
9. Cyperus strigosus L. -- Straw-colored cyperus
4. Dulichium Rich. ex Pers.
1. Dulichium arundinceum (L.) Britt. -- Three-way sedge
5. Eleocharis R. Br. -- Spikesedge, spikerush
1. Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. -- Needle spikesedge
2. Eleocharis compressa Sulliv. -- Flatstem spikesedge
3. Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. -- Spikerush
4. Eleocharis macrostachya Britt. -- Spikerush
5. Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schult. -- Blunt spikesedge
6. Eleocharis parvula (R. & S.) Link ex Buff. & Fingerh. -- Dwarf spikesedge
7. Eleocharis pauciflora (Lightf.) Link -- Few-flowered spikesedge
8. Eleocharis rostellata (Torr.) Torr.
9. Eleocharis smallii Britt. -- Spikerush
10. Eleocharis wolfii A. Gray -- Wolf's spikesedge
11. Eleocharis xyridiformis Fern. & Brackett -- Spikerush
6. Eriophorum L. -- Cottonsedge
1. Eriophorum chamissonis C. A. Mey. -- Chamisso cottonsedge
2. Eriophorum gracile Koch -- Slender cottonsedge
3. Eriophorum polystachion L. -- Narrowleaf cottonsedge
4. Eriophorum viridicarinatum (Engelm.) Fern.
7. Fimbristylis Vahl
1. Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) R. & S.
2. Fimbristylis puberula (Michx.) Vahl
8. Fuirena Rottb. -- Umbrella-grass
1. Fuirena simplex Vahl
9. Hemicarpha Nees
1. Hemicarpha drummondii Nees
2. Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Britt.
10. Rhynchospora Vahl -- Beak-rush
1. Rhynchospora capillacea Torr.
11. Scirpus L. -- Bulrush
1. Scirpus acutus Muhl. ex Bigel. -- Hardstem bulrush
2. Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth. -- Wool grass
3. Scirpus fluviatilis (Torr.) A. Gray -- River bulrush
4. Scirpus heterochaetus Chase -- Slender bulrush
5. Scirpus maritimus L. -- Prairie bulrush
6. Scirpus microcarpus Presl -- Redstem bulrush
7. Scirpus nevadensis S. Wats. -- Nevada bulrush
8. Scirpus pallidus (Britt.) Fern. -- Pale bulrush
9. Scirpus pendulinus Muhl.
10. Scirpus pungens Vahl -- Three-square
11. Scirpus saximontanus Fern.
12. Scirpus tabernaemontani Gmel. -- Softstem bulrush

63. Poaceae, the Grass Family
1. Agropyron Gaertn. -- Wheatgrass
1. Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. -- Quackgrass
2. Agrostis L. -- Bentgrass
1. Agrostis exarata Trin. -- Spikebent
2. Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B.S.P. -- Ticklegrass
3. Agrostis stolonifera L. -- Redtop
3. Alopecurus L. -- Foxtail
1. Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. -- Short-awn foxtail
2. Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir. -- Creeping foxtail
3. Alopecurus carolinianus Walt. -- Carolina foxtail
4. Alopecurus geniculatus L. -- Water foxtail
5. Alopecurus pratensis L. -- Meadow foxtail
4. Beckmannia Host
1. Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fern. -- Western sloughgrass
5. Bromus L. -- Brome grass
1. Bromus ciliatus L. -- Fringed brome
6. Calamagrostis Adans. -- Reedgrass
1. Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. -- Bluejoint reedgrass
2. Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koel. -- Northern reedgrass
7. Catabrosa Beauv.
1. Catabrosa aquatica (L.) Beauv. -- Brookgrass
8. Cinna L. -- Woodreed
1. Cinna arundinacea L. -- Woodreed
2. Cinna latifolia (Trev. ex Goepp.) Griseb. -- Drooping woodreed
9. Deschampsia Beauv. -- Hairgrass
1. Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv. -- Tufted hairgrass
10. Distichlis Raf.
1. Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene -- Saltgrass
11. Echinochloa Beauv. -- Barnyardgrass
1. Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.
2. Echinochloa muricata (Beauv.) Fern.
12. Eragrostis Beauv. -- Lovegrass
1. Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) B.S.P. -- Teal lovegrass
2. Eragrostis reptans (Michx.) Nees
13. Glyceria R. Br. -- Mannagrass
1. Glyceria borealis (Nash) Batch. -- Northern mannagrass
2. Glyceria grandis S. Wats. -- American mannagrass
3. Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. -- Fowl mannagrass
14. Hierochloe R. Br. -- Holygrass, sweetgrass
1. Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv.
15. Hordeum L. -- Barley
1. Hordeum jubatum L. -- Foxtail barley
16. Leersia Sw.
1. Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. -- Rice cutgrass
17. Leptochloa Beauv.
1. Leptochloa fascicularis (Lam.) A. Gray -- Bearded sprangletop
18. Muhlenbergia Schreb. -- Muhly
1. Muhlenbergia asperifolia (Nees & Meyen) Parodi -- Alkali muhly
2. Muhlenbergia glomerata (Willd.) Trin. -- Bristly muhly
3. Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. -- Wirestem muhly
4. Muhlenbergia racemosa (Trin.) Rydb. -- Marsh muhly, green muhly
5. Muhlenbergia richardsonis (Trin.) Rydb. -- Mat muhly
19. Panicum L. -- Panic grass
1. Panicum capillare L. -- Common witchgrass
20. Phalaris L. -- Canarygrass
1. Phalaris arundinacea L. -- Reed canarygrass
21. Phleum L.
1. Phleum pratense L. -- Timothy
22. Phragmites Trin.
1. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex. Steud. -- Common reed
23. Poa L. -- Bluegrass
1. Poa arida Vasey -- Plains bluegrass
2. Poa compressa L. -- Canada bluegrass
3. Poa palustris L. -- Fowl bluegrass
4. Poa pratensis L. -- Kentucky bluegrass
5. Poa trivialis L. -- Rough bluegrass
24. Polypogon Desf.
1. Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. -- Rabbitfoot beardgrass
25. Puccinellia Parl. -- Alkaligrass
1. Puccinellia cusickii Weatherby -- Cusick's alkaligrass
2. Puccinellia distans (L.) Parl. -- Weeping alkaligrass
3. Puccinellia nuttalliana (Schult.) Hitchc. -- Nuttall's alkaligrass
26. Scolochloa Link
1. Scolochloa festucacea (Willd.) Link -- Whitetop, sprangletop
27. Spartina Schreb. -- Cordgrass
1. Spartina gracilis Trin. -- Alkali cordgrass
2. Spartina pectinata Link -- Prairie cordgrass
28. Sphenopholis Scribn.
1. Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. -- Prairie wedgegrass
29. Zizania L.
1. Zizania aquatica L. -- Annual wildrice

64. Sparganiaceae, the Burreed Family
1. Sparganium L. -- Burreed
1. Sparganium chlorocarpum Rydb. -- Greenfruit burreed
2. Sparganium emersum Rehm.
3. Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. -- Giant burreed

65. Typhaceae, the Cattail Family
1. Typha L. -- Cattail
1. Typha angustifolia L. -- Narrowleaf cattail
2. Typha latifolia L. -- Common cattail
3. Typha X glauca Godr. -- Hybrid cattail

66. Pontederiaceae, the Pickerelweed Family
1. Heteranthera R. & P. -- Mud plantain
1. Heteranthera limosa (Sw.) Willd.
2. Zosterella Small
1. Zosterella dubia (Jacq.) Small -- Water stargrass

67. Liliaceae, the Lily Family
1. Hypoxis L. -- Stargrass
1. Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Cov. -- Yellow stargrass
2. Lilium L. -- Lily
1. Lilium philadelphicum L. -- Wild lily

68. Iridaceae, the Iris Family
1. Sisyrinchium L. -- Blue-eyed grass
1. Sisyrinchium montanum Greene

69. Orchidaceae, the Orchid Family
1. Coeloglossum Hartman
1. Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartman -- Long-bracted orchid
2. Cypripedium L. -- Ladyslipper
1. Cypripedium calceolus L. -- Yellow ladyslipper
2. Cypripedium candidum Muhl. -- White ladyslipper.
3. Cypripedium reginae Walt. -- Showy ladyslipper
3. Liparis Rich. -- Twayblade
1. Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich.
4. Platanthera Rich.
1. Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindl. -- Northern green orchid
2. Platanthera praeclara Sheviak & Bowles -- Western prairie fringed orchid
5. Spiranthes Rich. -- Ladies'-tresses
1. Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich. -- Nodding ladies'-tresses
2. Spiranthes magnicamporum Sheviak -- Great Plains ladies'-tresses
3. Spiranthes romanzoffiana Cham. -- Hooded ladies'-tresses
4. Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray -- Spring ladies'-tresses

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