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A Provisional Model for Smooth Brome
Management in Degraded Tallgrass Prairie

References


Becker, D.A. 1989. Five years of annual prairie burns. Pages 163-168 in T.B. 
     Bragg and J. Stubbendieck, editors. Proceedings of the Eleventh North 
     American Prairie Conference. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.
     
BMDP Statistical Software, Inc. 1991. SOLO statistical system, Los Angeles, 
     California.
     
Bragg, T.B., and D.M. Sutherland. 1989. Establishing warm-season grasses and 
     forbs using herbicides and mowing. Pages 81-89 in T.B. Bragg and J. 
     Stubbendieck, editors. Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie 
     Conference. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.
     
Carlson, I.T., and L.C. Newell. 1985. Smooth bromegrass. Pages 198-206 in M.E. 
     Heath, R.F. Barnes, and D.S. Metcalfe, editors. Forages. The science of 
     grassland agriculture. Fourth edition. Iowa State University Press, Ames, 
     Iowa.
     
Collins, S.C. and D.J. Gibson. 1990. Effects of fire on community structure in 
     tallgrass and mixed-grass prairie. Pages 81-98 in S.L. Collins and L.L. 
     Wallace, editors. Fire in North American tallgrass prairie. University of 
     Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.
     
Dill, T.O., S.S. Waller, K.P. Vogel, R.N. Gates, and W.W. Stroup. 1986. 
     Renovation of seeded warm-season pastures with atrazine. Journal of Range 
     Management 39:72-75.
     
Eastin, J.D., M.R. Teel, and R. Langston. 1964. Growth and development of six 
     varieties of smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) with observations 
     on seasonal variation of fructosan and growth regulators. Crop Science 
     4:555-559.
     
Gillen, R.L., D. Rollins, and J.F. Stritzke. 1987. Atrazine, spring burning, 
     and nitrogen for improvement of tallgrass prairie. Journal of Range 
     Management 40:444-447.
     
Henderson, R. 1982. Vegetation-fire ecology of tallgrass prairie. Natural Areas 
     Journal 2:17-26.

Hertz, L.B. 1962. Effect of certain fertility and management treatments on the 
     growth and early development of tillers of two varieties of smooth 
     bromegrass.  Agronomy Journal 54:139-141.
     
Knapp, A.K., J.M. Blair, and J.M. Briggs. 1998. Long-term ecological 
     consequences of varying fire frequency in a humid grassland. Pages 173-178 
     in T.L. Pruden and L.A. Brennan, editors. Fire in ecosystem management: 
     shifting the paradigm from suppression to prescription. Tall Timbers Fire 
     Ecology Conference Proceedings, No. 20. Tall Timbers Research Station, 
     Tallahassee, Florida.
     
Kirsch, L.M., and A.D. Kruse. 1972. Prairie fires and wildlife. In Proceedings 
     of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 12:289-303.
     
Lamp, H.F. 1952. Reproductive activity in Bromus inermis Leyss. in relation to 
     phases of tiller development. Botanical Gazette 113:413-438.
     
McElgunn, J.D., D.H. Heinrichs, and R. Ashford. 1972. Effects of initial 
     harvest date on productivity and persistence of alfalfa and bromegrass. 
     Canadian Journal of Plant Science 52:801-804.
     
Old, S.M. 1969. Microclimate, fire, and plant production in an Illinois 
     prairie. Ecological Monographs 39:355-384.
     
Paulsen, G.M., and D. Smith. 1969. Organic reserves, axillary bud activity, and
     herbage yields of smooth bromegrass as influenced by time of cutting, 
     nitrogen fertilization, and shading. Crop Science 9:529-534.
     
Reynolds, J.H., and D. Smith. 1962. Trend of carbohydrate reserves in alfalfa, 
     smooth brome-grass, and timothy grown under various cutting schedules. 
     Crop Science 2:333-336.
     
Scifres, C.J., W.T. Hamilton, J.R. Conner, J.W. Stuth, J.M. Inglis, T.G. Welch, 
     G.A. Rasmussen, and R.P. Smith. 1985. Integrated brush management systems 
     for South Texas: Development and implementation. Texas Agricultural 
     Experiment Station Bulletin 1493.
     
Smith, D., A.V.A. Jacques, and J.A. Balasko. 1973. Persistence of several 
     temperate grasses grown with alfalfa and harvested two, three, or four 
     times annually at two stubble heights. Crop Science 13:553-556.
     
Stubbendieck, J., S.L. Hatch, and C.H. Butterfield. 1992. North American range
     plants. Fourth edition. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska.
     
Teel, M.R. 1956. The physiological age of bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) as 
     it affects growth rate following defoliation. Purdue University, 
     Lafayette, Indiana. Doctoral dissertation.
     
Waller, S.S., and D.K. Schmidt. 1983. Improvement of eastern Nebraska tallgrass 
     range using atrazine or glyphosate. Journal of Range Management 36:87-90.
     
Walton, D.P. 1980. The production characteristics of Bromus inermis Leyss. and 
     their inheritance. Advances in Agronomy 33:341-369.
     
White, L.M. 1973. Carbohydrate reserves of grasses: a review. Journal of Range 
     Management 26:13-18.
     
Willson, G.D. 1991. Morphological characteristics of smooth brome used to 
     determine a prescribed burn date. Pages 113-116 in D.D. Smith and C.A. 
     Jacobs, editors. Proceedings of the Twelfth North American Prairie 
     Conference. University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa.
     
Willson, G.D. and J. Stubbendieck. 1995. Soil moisture and temperature 
     differences between burned and unburned smooth brome and big bluestem-
     dominated sites. Pages 79-82 in D.C. Hartnett, editor. Proceedings of the 
     Fourteenth North American Prairie Conference. Kansas State University, 
     Manhattan, Kansas.
     
Willson, G.D. and J. Stubbendieck. 1996. Suppression of smooth brome by 
     atrazine, mowing, and fire. The Prairie Naturalist 28:13-20.
     
Willson, G.D. and J. Stubbendieck. 1997. Fire effects on four growth stages of 
     smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.). Natural Areas Journal 17:306-312.

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