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Sago Pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.):
A Literature Review

Table 5


Table 5. Salinities of sago-inhabited waters, arranged according to increasing maximum observed salt tolerance.
   Salinity or total dissolved solids (mg/L)a
Range or single observation       Optimum           Dominant cations                 Reference
     50-70                                                                       Sheffer and Robinson 1939
       91                                                                        Fraser and Morton 1983
    127-141                                                                      Crowder et al. 1977
     >140                                                                        Seddon 1972
     <175                                                                        Gorman 1979
      210                                                  CO3                   Jenkin 1936
                                   >210                                          McCombie and Wile 1971
    158-245                                                                      Carter et al. 1985b
     98-248                                                                      Kowalczewski 1975
    189-267                                                                      Ozimek 1978
   >105->260                                                                     Merry et al. 1981
    192-262                                                                      Engel 1984
    140-350                                                                      Singh 1981
     <350                                                                        Lohammar 1965
      458                                                                        Disrud 1968
      454                                                  SO4                   Gladyshev and Kogan 1977
    280-490                                                                      Downing 1975
    353-546                                                CO3                    Gibbs 1973
      490                                                                        Ellis 1955
     >800                                                                        Chapman 1960b
      910                                                                        Madsen et al. 1988
     1,097                                                 SO4                   Olson 1979
     1,260                                                 HCO3/SO4              Schiemer and Prosser 1976
    140-1,300                                                                    Smith 1973
     1,670                                                 Cl                    Harrison 1962
     840-1,899                                             Cl                    Craner 1964
     2,200                                                                       Dix and Smeins 1967       
    144-2,573                                              Cl                    Spence et al. 1967        
      3,000                                                                      Fletcher et al. 1985      
    748-3,114                                              Cl                    Congdon and McComb 1976   
       3,160                                                                     Anderson and Jones 1976   
     <320-3,195                                            Cl                    Chapman 1960a             
    1,050-4 000                                            CO3/HCO3              Paullin 1973              
      >4,000                                               CO3/HCO3              Reynolds and Reynolds 1975                
    3,120-4,070                                            Cl                    Zaky 1960                 
    4,300-4,500                                            Cl                    Lundegardh-Ericson 1972                
      <5,000                                               Cl                    Haslam et al. 1975                     
    2,000-5,000                                            Cl                    Getsinger et al. 1982                     
    3,000-5,000                                            Cl                    Ungar et al. 1969          
       24-5,533                                                                  Pip 1984, 1987                          
      612-5,567                    4,567                                         Barker and Fulton 1979       
      ~5,800                                               Cl                    Evans 1953                             
    2,800-5,900                                            Cl                    Katanskaya 1986              
                                   3,000-6,000             Cl                    Jensen 1940                                  
    5,000-6,000                                            Cl                    Ravanko 1972                      
      ~6,500                                               Cl                    Kautsky 1987
    1,980-6,870                                            Cl                    Bourn and Jenkins 1928                       
    1,000-7,000                                            Cl                    Brock and Lane 1983                        
      <7,000                                               Cl                    Neely 1962                                  
    6,000-7,000                                            Cl                    Kornas et al. 1960                          
       7,000                                               Cl                    Barnes et al. 1971              
                                   4,700-7,050             Cl                    Verhoeven 1975                                
       35-7,900                                           SO4                    Pip 1979                          
       8,000                                               Cl                    Hill et al. 1975
      <8,500                                               Cl                    Ward 1976                           
  2,000-9,000                                              Cl                   Robarts and Allanson 1977                         
                                   9,000                   SO4                  Shubert 1982                      
     9,000                                                 Cl                   Oborn 1964                        
    <9,500                                                 Cl                   Kiorboe 1980                      
   <10,000                                                 Cl                   Massart 1922                      
   <10,000                                                 Cl                   Howard-Williams and Liptrot 1980  
   <10,000                                                 Cl                   Klokov and Zimbalevskaya 1974     
 1,400-10,700                                              Cl                   Southwick and Pine 1975           
   <11,000                                                 Cl                   Carter et al. 1985a               
  5,000-11,000                                             Cl                   Howard-Williams and Davies 1979   
 1,030-11,680                                              Cl                   Flowers 1934                      
 1,000-12,000                                              CO3/HCO3             McCarraher et al. 1961            
  4,000-12,000                                             Cl                   Stewart and Davies 1986           
  5,500-12,000                                             SO4/Cl               Krapu and Duebbert 1974           
 10,000-12,000                                             Cl                   Klavestad 1957                    
    12,000                         7,000                   Cl                   Bourn 1932                        
    12,000                                                                      Academia Sinica 1979, cited in    
                                                                                Hammer and Heseltine 1988    
  >=12,000                         7,000                   Cl                   Critcher 1949                     
   13,000                                                  Cl                   Martin and Uhler 1939             
 2,530-13,010                                              Cl                   Verhoeven and Van Vierssen 1978a  
                                   7,000-14,000            Cl                   Sincock 1965                      
 7,500-14,000                                              Cl                   Olsen 1945                        
   <14,460                                                 Cl                   Verhoeven and Van Vierssen 1978a  
                                   1,000-15,000            SO4                  Sloan 1970                        
 4,000-15,000                                              Cl                   Thorne-Miller et al. 1983         
   97-15,130                                                                    Kadono 1982                       
   ~16,000                                                 Cl                   McAtee 1939                       
   <16,260                         <5,420                  Cl                   Verhoeven 1980a                   
 10,850-16,550                                             SO4                  Huntsman 1922                     
   200-18,000                                              Cl                   Olsen 1950                        
    <18,000                                                Cl                   Mathiesen and Nielsen 1956        
    18,000                                                 Cl                   den Hartog 1981                   
  6,000-19,000                                                                  Drabkova et al. 1978, cited in    
                                                                                Hammer and Heseltine 1988        
 5,000-20,000                                              Cl                   Gerbeaux and Ward 1986            
   20,000                                                  Cl                   Spence et al. 1979b               
  200-20,380                                               SO4                  Rawson and Moore 1944             
 3,265-20,961                      5,421-12,649            Cl                   Van Vierssen and Verhoeven 1983   
 2,400-22,400                      3,300-7,200             Cl                   Wright et al. 1949                
 1,000-24,000                                                                   Smeins 1967                       
 3,300-25,000                                              SO4                  Hammer et al. 1975                
  225-26,400                       2,000-15,000            SO4                  Stewart and Kantrud 1972          
   0-31,500                        2,000-15,000            SO4                  Millar 1976                       
   131-32,637                                                                   Sletten and Larson 1984           
   350-35,873                                              SO4                  Metcalf 1931                      
   <49,918                                                 CO3/HCO3             McCarraher 1977                   
   <53,000                                                 SO4                  Hammer and Heseltine 1988         
 2,300-104,00                                              SO4                  Ungar 1970

a Conductivity was converted to mg/L with the following multipliers: 0-2 mS x 0.7; 2-40 mS x 1.0; >40 mS x 1.5. Chlorinity (o/oo) was converted to mg/L by multiplying by 1.807 x 10 3; sea strength was considered 31,950 mg/L.
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