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Sago Pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus L.):
A Literature Review

Table 4


Table 4 -- General habitat features for sago pondweed occurrences arranged according to increasing observed tolerance of water depth.
              Depth (m)                                           Predominant
Range or single                        Water          Water        substrate
  observation         Optimuma       turbidity       salinity       texture           Reference
0.23 mixosaline organic muck Wrubleski and Roback 1987 0.25 Kiorboe 1980 0.2-0.3 little mixosaline clay loam Nelson 1954 0.2-0.3 Ellis 1955 <0.35 limiting fresh Andersen 1976 0.12-0.38 0.25 mixosaline clay Sterling 1970 0.3-0.4 limiting mixosaline Verhoeven 1980a 0.4 organic mud Verhoeven 1980a 0.07-0.5 0.4-0.45 limiting mixosaline clay Robel 1961, 1962 0.46 limiting silty marl Rich 1966 0.05-0.5 clay Verhoeven 1980a 0.2-0.5 mixosaline sandy clay Jensen 1940 0.3-0.6 muddy sand Tryon 1954 0.45-0.60 silt Peltier and Welch 1969 0.07-0.64 muck Smeins 1965 <0.08-0.69 0.30-0.69 mixosaline silt,clay loam Craner 1964 0.6-0.7 limiting mixosaline sand-silt-loam Sincock 196 <0.7 limiting fresh Congdon and McComb 1976 0.2-0.7 mixosaline mud,organinc Meriaux l978 clay 0.28-0.71 moderate mixosaline sand Gibbs 1973 0.25-0.75 fresh gravel, sand Olsen 1950 0.6-0.75 mixosaline Shubert 1982 0.6-0.75 mixosaline sand-silt Kollman and Wali 1976 <0.76 gravel-rubble Huber 1952 <0.8 fresh Swindale and Curtis 1957 >0.8 Haslam 1978 >0.8 fresh mud Brooker and Edwards 1973 0.27-0.81 sand, gravel Madsen 1986 0.1-0.85 0.8-0.85 mixosaline gravel,sandy Verhoeven and Van Vierssen mud 1978a 0.74-0.89 mixosaline Madsen et al. 1988 <0.9 limiting mud Bourn 1932 <=0.9 limiting silt Logan 1975 0.3-0.9 clay Lathwell et al. 1969 0.7-0.9 mixosaline mud Klavestad 1957 0.8-0.9 moderate silt Jackson and Starrett 1959 0.30-0.91 0.30-0.61 muck Sharp 1939 0.61-0.91 muck,sand Threinen and Helm 1954 0.69-0.91 0.78 sludge Westlake 1961 0.28-0.93 0.51 moderate mixosaline silt, sand Olson 1979 0.2-1.0 peat Kohler et al. 1971 0.3-1.0 0.6-0.7 Anderson 1978 0.5-1.0 mixosaline Mathiesen and Nielsen 1956 0.7-1.0 fresh Bernatowicz and Zachwieja 1966 <1.0 marl Nichols and Mori 1971 <1.0 mixosaline sand Evans 1953 <1.0 mixosaline Verhoeven and Van Vierssen 1978b <1.0 clay Jupp and Spence 1977a <1.0 mixosaline Gerbeaux and Ward 1986 <=1.0 Kuflikowski 1977 1.0 mixosaline mud Aleem and Samaan 1969a 1.0 silt, sand Van der Valk and Bliss 1971 0.03-1.2 0.35-1.0 moderate mixosaline clay H. A. Kantrud, personal observation 0.15-1.2 muck,silt McDonald 1951 0.3-1.2 sand organic Moyle and Hotchkiss 1945 0.3-1.2 Titcomb 1923 0.5-1.2 0.5-1.0 Natelson 1954 0.6-1.2 Bellrose 1941 <1.2 mixosaline mud,clay Harrison 1962 <1.2 Prophet and Carrillo 1979 1.2 little Anderson 1950 1.2 little mixosaline Krapu and Duebbert 1974 <1.22 little fresh Jessen and Lound 1962 0.05-1.3 fresh Van Donselarr et al. 1961 0.5-1.3 clay Schwartz et al. 1986 <=1.4 mixosaline clay,silt Carter et al. 1985b 0.19-1.47 1.08-1.27 little fresh clay,clay loam Jarvis et al. 1985 0.6-1.5 Walker 1965 0.9-1.5 clay Brumsted and Hewitt 1952 1.2-1.5 organic Tebo 1955 <1.5 moderate silt,clay Bergman 1973 <1.5 0.5-0.75 mixosaline silt-sand Verhoeven 1975 <1.5 Vander Zouwen 1982 <=1.5 silt Jessen and Kuehn 1960 1.5 Smith 1946 1.5 Noyes 1983 0.05-1.6 0.65-0.8 mixosaline Lindner 1978 1.25-1.65 little mixosaline silt Schiemer and Prosser 1976 0.6-1.8 mud,sand Sigler 1948 1.8 mixosaline sand,mud Thorne-Miller et al. 1983 1.1-1.9 1.6 marl Bailey and Titman 1984 0.5-2.0 moderate fresh mud Ho 1979 0.6-2.0 0.8-1.0 moderate mixosaline Davis and Carey 1981 <0.9-2.0 mixosaline organic mud, Lundegardh-Ericson 1972 clay 1.0-2.0 mixosaline sand-mud Getsinger et al. 1982 mixosaline Ramirez and San Martin 2.0 1984 <2.0 Craig et al. 1980 0.44-2.06 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation 1986, unpublished fresh silt McCombie and Wile 1971 <2.1 <2.0 Telford and Stevens 1942 0.3-2.1 0.6-0.9 mixosaline silt Paullin 1973 1.2-2.28 0.4-1.5 moderate mixosaline mud Mason and Bryant 1975 0.4-2.3 fresh silt,clay Gladyshev and Kogan 1977 <=2.4 muck,sand Thomson 1944 <1.0-<2.5 little mixosaline sand Anderson and Jones 1976 0.5-2.5 <1.0 mixosaline Haslam et al. 1975 0.6-2.5 sand,mud Spence 1964 1.4-2.5 mixosaline sand-gravel Downing 1975 <2.5 Ozimek et al. 1986 <2.5 <0.7 sand,silt Wilson 1941 1.5-2.7 <1.0 organic Kaul and Zutshi 1967 <1.0-<3.0 moderate fresh silt,sand Oglesby et al. 1976 0.2-3.0 <1.0 mixosaline sand Verhoeven 1980a 0.3-3.0 Pammel 1917 0.8-3.0 mixosaline Howard-Williams and Liptrot 1980 <1.0-3.0 <1.0 little Sheldon and Boylen 1977 1.0-3.0 mixosaline sand Howard-Williams and Davies 1979 1.0-3.0 Pirnie 1935 <3.0 fresh Jenkin 1936 <3.0 Clayton and Bagyaraj 1984 <3.0 mixosaline sand Robarts and Allanson 1977 <=3.0 little silt Singhal and Singh 1978 3.0 little silt Stuckey 1971 3.0 Weisser and Howard-Williams 1982 >3.0 little mixosaline sand Hill et al. 1975 0.8-3.35 0.0-1.0 Rickett 1922 1.25-3.5 1.25 Haag 1983 2.74-3.6 Evermann 1902 <3.7 1.8-3.0 muck Moore 1915 3.0-4.0 mixosaline Ravanko 1972 0.3-4.5 moderate mud,sand Denniston 1921 4.6 Modlin 1970 0.4-4.7 1.3-3.0 mixosaline sandy mud Kornas et al. 1960 <5.0 1.5-2.0 moderate Seidelin Raunkiaer and Boye Petersen 1917 <5.0 Spence et al. 1979b <5.0 <4.0 Voge 1987 <1.0-5.3 Denny 1973 0.5-5.5 Schmid 1965 0.0-6.0 0.75-1.5 clay,silt Denny 1972 0.5-6.0 0.5-1.5 moderate silty clay Purohit 1981 0.8-6.2 1.5 Jerling and Lindhe 1977 <7.0 5.0-6.0 little fresh Seidelin Raunkiaer and Boye Petersen 1917 <1.0-7.0 <1.0 fresh sand Rickett 1922 <1.5-7.0 gravel,sand Crum and Bachmann 1973 <1.5-7.0 1.5-2.0 Christensen and Andersen 1958 1.0-7.0 little sand Boltt et al. 1969 3.0-7.0 5.0 little Sheldon 1987 4.0-7.0 little fresh gravel,mud Singh 1981 <7.5 fresh Golubic 1961 0.0-8.0 0.0-3.0 mixosaline Kautsky 1987 <8.0 1.0-2.0 sand,mud Olsen 1945 <8.0 little mixosaline Hammer and Heseltine 1988 <1.0-8.0 1.0-3.0 little fresh mud-marl Rickett 1924 1.5-10.0 Jimbo et al. 1955 8.0-10.0 mixosaline Wallentinus 1979
aOptimum depths as stated by author, where maximum biomass or frequency was shown in tables or graphs, or where best propagation results were obtained.
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