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Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota and Wisconsin

Table 1 - Comparison of Wetland Classification Systems


Wetland Plant Community Types of this GuideVegetation of Wisconsin (Curtis 1971)Wisconsin Wetland InventoryClassification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (Cowardin et al. 1979)Fish and Wildlife Service Circular 39 (Shaw and Fredine 1971)
Shallow, Open WaterSubmergent aquatic communityAquatic bed, submergent and floatingPalustrine or lacustrine, littoral; aquatic bed; submergent, floating, and floating-leavedType 5: Inland open fresh water
Deep MarshEmergent and submergent aquatic communityAquatic bed, submergent, and floating; and persistent and nonpersistent, emergentPalustrine or lacustrine, littoral; aquatic bed; submergent, floating, and floating-leaved; and emergent; persistent and nonpersistentType 4: Inland deep fresh marsh
Shallow MarshEmergent aquatic communityPersistnet and nonpersistent, emergentPalustrine; energent; persistent and nonpersistentType 3: Inland shallow fresh marsh
Sedge MeadowNorthern and southern sedge meadowNarrow-leaved persistent, emergent/wet meadowPalustrine; emergent; narrow-leaved persistentType 2: Inland fresh meadow
Fresh (Wet) Meadow--Broad- and narrow-leaved persistent, emergent/wet meadowPalustrine; emergent; broad- and narrow-leaved persistentType 1: Seasonally flooded basin or flat;
Type 2: Inland fresh meadow
Wet to Wet-Mesic PrairieLow (wet to wet-mesic) prairieBroad- and narrow-leaved persistent, emergent/wet meadowPalustrine; emergent; broad- and narrow-leaved persistentType 1: Seasonally flooded basin or flat;
Type 2: Inland fresh meadow
Calcareous FenFenNarrow-leaved persistent, emergent/wet meadow; and broad-leaved deciduous, scrub/shrubPalustrine; emergent; narrow-leaved persistent; and scrub/shrub, broad leaved deciduousType 2: Inland fresh meadow
Open BogOpen bogMoss; and broad-leaved evergreen, scrub/shrubPalustrine; moss/lichen; and scrub/shrub; broad-leaved evergreenType 8: Bog
Coniferous BogNorthern wet forestNeedle-leaved evergreen and deciduous, forestedPalustrine; forested: needle-leaved evergreen and deciduousType 8: Bog
Shrub - CarrShrub - carrBroad-leaved deciduous, scrub/shrubPalustrine; scrub/shrub; broad-leaved deciduousType 6: Shrub swamp
Alder ThicketAlder thicketBroad-leaved deciduous, scrub/shrubPalustrine; scrub/shrub; broad-leaved deciduousType 6: Shrub swamp
Hardwood SwampNorthern wet-mesic forest and southern wet to wet-mesic forestBroad-leaved deciduous, forestedPalustrine; forested; broad-leaved deciduousType 7: Wooded swamp
Coniferous SwampNorthern wet-mesic forestNeedle-leaved deciduous and evergreen, forestedPalustrine; forested; needle-leaved deciduous and evergreenType 7: Wooded swamp
Floodplain ForestNorthern and southern wet-mesic forestBroad-leaved deciduous, forestedPalustrine; forested; broad-leaved deciduousType 1: Seasonally flooded basin or flat
Seasonally Flooded Basin--Flats/unvegetated wet soil; and persistent and non-persistent, emergent/wet meadowPalustrine; flat; emergent; persistent and non-persistentType 1: Seasonally flooded basin or flat

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