Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
BELLFLOWER FAMILY (Campanulaceae)
IND. STATUS: OBL
FIELD CHARACTERISTICS: A perennial herb that usually has a simple stem growing to a height of 5-15 dm. The leaves are thin, smooth, dark green, lanceolate to lance-ovate, and irregularly serrate. The racemes are terminal and 1-4 dm. long. Flowers are intense scarlet-red and 3-4 cm. long. In flower from July to September.
ECOLOGICAL NOTES: Cardinal flower is found in floodplain forests, fresh (wet) meadows and along streambanks.
SOURCE: Fernald (1970); and Gleason and Cronquist (1991).