Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Western Wetland Flora
Field Office Guide to Plant Species
Pedicularis groenlandica Retz.
- Family: Figwort (Scrophulariaceae)
- Flowering: June-September
- Field Marks: When in flower this is one of the most easily recognized plants because the upper lip of the purple flower is prolonged into a curved beak that resembles the trunk of an elephant. The leaves are deeply pinnately divided.
- Habitat: Wet meadows, damp woods, along streams, particularly in the mountains.
- Habit: Perennial herb with a thickened rootstock.
- Stems: Upright, up to 2 feet tall, usually unbranched but often several together from the base, smooth.
- Leaves: Nearly all basal but a few alternate, simple but deeply pinnately divided nearly to the middle, up to 12 inches long, up to 3 inches wide, smooth, each lobe of the leaf toothed, the lowest leaves stalked, the upper smaller and without a
- Flowers: Several crowded together into a spike, the spike up to 8 inches long, each flower subtended by narrow, often deeply lobed bracts.
- Sepals: 5, united below, green, the tips about 1/20 inch long, triangular, the united part with white veins and hairy on the inner surface.
- Petals: 5, forming 2 lips, violet to purple, up to 1/3 inch long, the upper petal prolonged into a curved beak up to 3/4 inch long.
- Fruits: Capsules 1/3-2/5 inch long, asymmetrical, smooth; seeds 1/8-1/6 inch long,
winged, smooth, with a prominent venation pattern.
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