Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Northeast Wetland Flora
Field Office Guide to Plant Species
Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere
- Family: Pine (Pinaceae)
- Fruits: Autumn
- Field Marks: This conifer is distinguished by its blunt, flat needles that are whitened on the
back and by its small, drooping cones up to 1 inch long.
- Habitat: Moist, often rocky woods.
- Habit: Tree to nearly 100 feet tall, with a trunk diameter up to 3 feet; bark deeply furrowed, with rounded, scaly ridges.
- Twigs: Yellow-brown, finely hairy.
- Leaves: Evergreen, the needles appearing 2-ranked, linear, rounded at the tip, very short-stalked at the base, bright green on the upper surface, whitened on the lower surface, up to 3/4 inch long.
- Reproductive Structures: Male cones in the axils of the leaves, more or less spherical, short-stalked; female cones terminal.
- Fruits: Cones woody, drooping, up to 1 inch long; scales more or less spherical.
- Notes: This species is frequently grown as an ornamental. The twigs are browsed by deer, while birds and red squirrels eat the seeds, and ruffed grouse eat the buds and leaves.
Previous Species -- Narrow-leaf Meadow-sweet (Spiraea alba)
Return to Species List -- Group 5