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Northeast Wetland Flora

List of Northeastern Wetland Flora in This Project


The 300 Northeastern wetland plants selected for this project are given in the following list. The list is arranged by groups as found in the key to groups.Within each group the plants are arranged alphabetically first by the scientific name of the genus, then alphabetically by species within the genus. The scientific and common names are those given in the National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands: Region 1 (1998).

Groups

Group 1 -- Ferns and Fern-related Plants
Group 2 -- Grasses
Group 3 -- Sedges
Group 4 -- Other Monocots
Group 5 -- Trees and Shrubs
Group 6 -- Dicot Herbs with Some of the Leaves Compound
Group 7 -- Dicot Herbs with Most or All of the Leaves Simple and Opposite or Whorled
Group 8 -- Dicot Herbs with All the Leaves Simple and Basal and/or Alternate

Group 1. Ferns and Fern-related Plants

Crested Shield Fern (Dryopteris cristata (L.) Gray)
Water Horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile L.)
Woodland Horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum L.)
Appalachian Quillwort (Isoetes engelmannii A. Braun)
Stiff Clubmoss (Lycopodium annotinum L.)
Shining Clubmoss (Lycopodium lucidulum Michx.)
Ostrich Fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro)
Interrupted Fern (Osmunda claytoniana L.)
Christmas Fern (Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott)
Bracken Fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn)
New York Fern (Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl.)
Return to list of groups.

Group 2. Grasses

Northern Bentgrass (Agrostis borealis Hartm.)
Brown Bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.)
Winter Bentgrass (Agrostis hyemalis (Walter) BSP.)
Perennial Bentgrass (Agrostis perennans (Walter) Tuckerman)
Rough Bentgrass (Agrostis scabra Willd.)
Spreading Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.)
Meadow Foxtail (Alopecurus geniculatus L.)
Mouse Foxtail (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.)
Meadow Foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.)
Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman)
Sliver Bluestem (Andropogon ternarius Michx.)
Fringed Brome (Bromus ciliatus L.)
Dudley Brome (Bromus dudleyi Fern.)
Japanese Brome (Broomus japonicus Thunb.)
Earleaf Brome (Bromus latiglumis (Shear) Hitchc.)
Canada Brome (Bromus purgans L.)
Nuttall's Small-reedgrass (Calamagrostis cinnoides (Muhl.) Barton)
Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata L.)
Needle-leaf Witchgrass (Dichanthelium aciculare (Desv. ex Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark)
Variable Witchgrass (Dichanthelium commutatum (J.A. Schultes) Gould)
Broad-leaf Witchgrass (Dichanthelium latifolium (L.) Harvill)
Egg-leaf Witchgrass (Dichanthelium ovale (Elliott) Gould & C.A. Clark)
Woolly Panic Grass (Dichanthelium scabriusculum (Elliott) Gould & C.A. Clark)
Inland Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene)
India Goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.)
Riverbank Wild-rye (Elymus riparius Wiegand)
Nodding Fescue (Festuca obtusa Biehler)
Red Fescue (Festuca rubra L.)
Canada Manna Grass (Glyceria canadensis (Michx.) Trin.)
Reed Meadowgrass (Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) O.R. Holmberg)
Atlantic Manna Grass (Glyceria obtusa (Muhl.) Trin.)
Long-awn Muhly (Muhlenbergia capillaris (Lam.) Trin.)
Wire-stem Muhly (Muhlenbergia frondosa (Poir.) Fernald)
Marsh Muhly (Muhlenbergia glomerata (Willd.) Trin.)
Mexican Muhly (Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin.)
Green Muhly (Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) BSP.)
Nimble-will (Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F. Gmel.)
Forest Muhly (Muhlenbergia sylvatica Torr. ex Gray)
Bog Muhly (Muhlenbergia uniflora (Muhl.) Fernald)
Gattinger Panic Grass (Panicum gattingeri Nash)
Maiden-cane (Panicum hemitomon J.A. Schultes)
Warty Panic Grass (Panicum verrucosum Muhl.)
Dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.)
Autumn Bluegrass (Poa autumnalis Muhl. ex Elliott)
Woods Bluegrass (Poa nemoralis L.)
Woodland Bluegrass (Poa sylvestris Gray)
Rough Bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.)
Fox-tail Bristle Grass (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)
Bur Bristle Grass (Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv.)
Return to list of groups.

Group 3. Sedges

Thicket Sedge (Carex abscondita Mackenz.)
Greenish-white Sedge (Carex albolutescens Schweinitz)
Narrow-leaf Sedge (Carex amphibola Steud.)
Water Sedge (Carex aquatilis Wahlenb.)
Prickly Bog Sedge (Carex atlantica L.H. Bailey)
Bailey Sedge (Carex baileyi Britt.)
Bebb's Sedge (Carex bebbii (L.H. Bailey) Olney ex Fernald)
Hair-like Sedge (Carex capillaris L.)
Oval-leaf Sedge (Carex cephalophora Muhl. ex Willd.)
White-edge Sedge (Carex debilis Michx.)
Soft-leaf Sedge (Carex disperma Dewey)
Little Prickly Sedge (Carex echinata Murray)
Graceful Sedge (Carex gracillima Schweinitz)
Bladder Sedge (Carex intumescens Rudge)
Cypress-swamp Sedge (Carex joorii L.H. Bailey)
Lakebank Sedge (Carex lacustris Willd.)
Nerveless Wood Sedge (Carex leptonervia Fernald)
Many-form Sedge (Carex polymorpha Muhl.)
Drooping Sedge (Carex prasina Wahlenb.)
Rough Sedge (Carex scabrata Schweinitz)
Canadian Single-spike Sedge (Carex scirpoidea Michx.)
Bur-reed Sedge (Carex sparganioides Muhl. ex Willd.)
Straw Sedge (Carex straminea Willd.)
Upright Sedge (Carex stricta Lam.)
Twisted Sedge (Carex torta Boott)
Hairy-fruit Sedge (Carex trichocarpa Muhl. ex Willd.)
Three-seed Sedge (Carex trisperma Dewey)
Smooth Sawgrass (Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr.)
Many-flower Flatsedge (Cyperus lancastriensis T. Porter ex Gray)
Many-spike Flatsedge (Cyperus polystachyos Rottb.)
Thin-leaf Flatsedge (Cyperus tenuifolius (Steud.) Dandy)
Ovate Spikerush (Eleocharis ovata (Roth) Roem. & J.A. Schultes)
Small Spikerush (Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & J.A. Schultes) Link ex Bluff & Fingerh.)
Coldswamp Cotton-grass (Eriophorum polystachion L.)
Hare's-tail (Eriophorum spissum Fernald)
Cleft Cotton-grass (Eriophorum vaginatum L.)
Tawny Cotton-grass (Eriophorum virgincum L.)
Green-keel Cotton-grass (Eriophorum viridi-carinatum (Engelm.) Fernald)
Annual Fimbry (Frimbristylis annua (All.) Roem. & J.A. Schultes)
Dwarf Umbrella-sedge (Fuirena pumila Torr.)
White Beakrush (Rhynchospora alba (L.) Vahl)
Brownish Beakrush (Rhynchospora capitellata (Michx.) Vahl)
Dark-green Bulrush (Scirpus georgianus R.M. Harper)
Return to list of groups.

Group 4. Other Monocots

Sweetflag (Acorus calamus L.)
Subcordate Water-plantain (Alisma subcordatum Raf.)
Swamp Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott)
Blue Beadlily (Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf.)
Pink Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium acaule Ait.)
White Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium candidum Muhl. ex Willd.)
Showy Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium reginae Walter)
Broad Water-weed (Elodea canadensis Michx.)
Downy Rattlesnake-plantain (Goodyera pubescens (Willd.) R. Br.)
Kidney-leaf Mud-plantain (Heteranthera reniformis Ruiz & Pavon)
Slender Blue Iris (Iris prismatica Pursh)
Yellow Iris (Iris pseudacorus L.)
Blueflag (Iris versicolor L.)
Virginia Blueflag (Iris virginica L.)
Small Whorled Pogonia (Isotria medeoloides (Pursh) Raf.)
Baltic Rush (Juncus balticus Willd.)
Small-head Rush (Juncus brachycephalus (Engelm.) Buchenau)
Toad Rush (Juncus bufonius L.)
Canada Rush (Juncus canadensis J. Gay)
Grass-like Rush (Juncus marginatus Rostk.)
Big-head Rush (Juncus megacephalus M.A. Curt.)
Flat-leaf Rush (Juncus platyphyllus (Weigand) Fernald)
Secund Rush (Juncus secundus Beauv.)
Woods Rush (Juncus subcaudatus (Engelm.) Coville & Blake)
Lesser Duckweed (Lemna minor L.)
Minute Duckweed (Lemna perpusilla Torr.)
Virginia Bunchflower (Melanthium virginicum L.)
Slender Naiad (Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & W.L.E. Schmidt)
Brittle Naiad (Najas minor All.)
Northern Green Orchid (Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindl.)
Purple Fringeless Orchid (Platanthera peramoena Gray)
Small Solomon's-seal (Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott)
Great Solomon's-seal (Polygonatum commutatum (J.A. & J.H. Schultes) A. Dietr.)
Pickerel Weed (Pontederia cordata L.)
Large-leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton amplifolius Tuckerman)
Curly Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.)
Water-thread Pondweed (Potamogeton diversifolius Raf.)
Ribbon-leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton epihydrus Raf.)
Leafy Pondweed (Potamogeton foliosus Raf.)
Grassy Pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus L.)
Giant Burreed (Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. ex Gray)
Virginia Spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana L.)
Common Yellow-eyed-grass (Xyris difformis Chapm.)
Fringed Yellow-eyed-grass (Xyris fimbriata Elliott)
Twisted Yellow-eyed-grass (Xyris torta J.E. Smith)
Atlantic Deathcamas (Zigadenus glaberrimus Michx.)
White Camas (Zigadenus glaucus Nutt.)
Return to list of groups.

Group 5. Trees and Shrubs

Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.)
Green Alder (Alnus crispa (Dryalnd. in Ait.) Pursh)
European Alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)
Seaside Alder (Alnus maritima (Marsh.) Nutt.)
Speckled Alder (Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng.)
Oblong-leaf Service-berry (Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Medic.)
Bog Rosemary (Andromeda polifolia L.)
Red Chokeberry (Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Elliott)
Purple Chokeberry (Aronia prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehder)
Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton)
Sweet Birch (Betula lenta L.)
Gray Birch (Betula populifolia Marshall)
Northern Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa (Warder ex Barney) Warder ex Engelm.)
Atlantic White Cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP.)
White Fringe Tree (Chionanthus virginicus L.)
Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida L.)
Common Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana L.)
Black Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.)
Eastern Burning-bush (Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq.)
American Beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.)
White Ash (Fraxinus americana L.)
Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra Marshall)
Creeping Snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula (L.) Muhl. ex Torr.)
Teaberry (Gaultheria procumbens L.)
Honey-locust (Gleditsia triacanthos L.)
Shrubby St. John's-wort (Hypericum prolificum L.)
American Holly (Ilex opaca Soland. in Ait.)
Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.)
Black Walnut (Juglans nigra L.)
Sheep-laurel (Kalmia angustifolia L.)
Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.)
American Larch (Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch)
Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.)
Eastern Ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.)
Red Spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.)
Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida Mill.)
Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.)
Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera L.)
Eastern Cotton-wood (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall)
Swamp Cotton-wood (Populus heterophylla L.)
Quaking Aspen (Populus tremula L.)
Southern Red Oak (Quercus falcata Michx.)
Shingle Oak (Quercus imbricaria Michx.)
Willow Oak (Quercus phellos L.)
Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus L.)
Post Oak (Quercus stellata Wangerh.)
Alder-leaf Buckthorn (Rhamnus alnifolia L'Her)
Pink Azalea (Rhododendron periclymenoides (Michx.) Shinners)
Old Field Blackberry (Rubus alumnus L.H. Bailey)
Bailey Blackberry (Rubus baileyanus Britt.)
Sand Blackberry (Rubus cuneifolius Pursh)
Enslen Blackberry (Rubus enslenii Tratt.)
Common Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.)
Tall Priarie Willow (Salix humilis Marshall)
Shining Willow (Salix lucida Muhl.)
Silky Willow (Salix sericea Marshall)
Narrow-leaf Meadow-sweet (Spiraea alba DuRoi)
Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere)
Return to list of groups.

Group 6. Dicot Herbs with Some of the Leaves Compound

Tall Hairy Groovebur (Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.)
Beaked Groovebur (Agrimonia rostellata Wallr.)
Woodland Groovebur (Agrimonia striata Michx.)
Purple-stem Angelica (Angelica atropurpurea L.)
Large-fruit Beggar-ticks (Bidens coronata (L.) Britton)
Swamp Beggar-ticks (Bidens discoidea (Torr. & Gray) Britton)
Small-fruit Beggar-ticks (Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff)
Awnless Beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis Blake)
Common Hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum L.)
Rough Avens (Geum laciniatum Murray)
Purple Avens (Geum rivale L.)
American Featherfoil (Hottonia inflata Elliott)
Parrot-feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Cambess.)
Two-leaf Water-milfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx.)
Eurasian Water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.)
True Water-cress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br. in W.T. Ait.)
Carolina Butter-cup (Ranunculus carolinianus DC.)
Bristly Butter-cup (Ranunculus hispidus Michx.)
Return to list of groups.

Group 7. Dicot Herbs with Most or All of the Leaves Simple and Opposite or Whorled

Sandvine (Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britton)
Leafy-bract Beggar-ticks (Bidens comosa (Gray) Wiegand)
Purple-stem Beggar-ticks (Bidens connata Muhl. ex Willd.)
Smooth Beggar-ticks (Bidens laevis (L.) BSP.)
Three-lobe Beggar-ticks (Bidens tripartita L.)
Larger Water-starwort (Callitriche hetetophylla Pursh)
Red Turtlehead (Chelone obliqua L.)
Canada Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis L.)
Water-purslane (Didiplis diandra (Nutt. ex DC.) A. Wood)
Spotted Joe-pye-weed (Eupatoriadelphus maculatus (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob.)
Sweet Joe-pye-weed (Eupatoriadelphus purpureus (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob.)
Round-leaf Thorough-wort (Eupatorium rotundifolium L.)
Spreading Broomspurge (Euphorbia humistrata Engelm.)
Rough Bedstraw (Galium asprellum Michx.)
Fringe-top Bottle Gentian (Gentiana andrewsii Griseb.)
Closed Gentian (Gentiana clausa Raf.)
Round-fruit Hedgehyssop (Gratiola virginiana L.)
Canadian St. John's-wort (Hypericum canadense L.)
Coppery St. John's-wort (Hypericum denticulatum Walter)
Slender St. John's-wort (Hypericum mutilum L.)
Great St. John's-wort (Hypericum pyramidatum Ait.)
Flax (Linum striatum Walt.)
Four-flower Loosestrife (Lysimachia quadriflora Sims)
Peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.)
Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.)
Narrow-leaf Sundrops (Oenothera fruticosa L.)
Meadow Phlox (Phlox maculata L.)
Narrow-leaf Mountain-mint (Pycnanthemum flexuosum (Walter.) BSP.)
Virginia Meadow-beauty (Rhexia virginica L.)
Bouncing-bet (Saponaria officinalis L.)
Hooded Skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata L.)
Hyssop Skullcap (Scutellaria integrifolia L.)
Return to list of groups.

Group 8. Dicot Herbs with All the Leaves Simple and Basal and/or Alternate

Canada Thimble-weed (Anemone canadensis L.)
White Heath Aster (Aster ericoides L.)
Shining Aster (Aster lucidulus (Gray) Wiegand)
New York Aster (Aster novi-belgii L.)
White Heath Aster (Aster pilosus Willd.)
Crooked-stem Aster (Aster prenanthoides Muhl.)
Swamp Aster (Aster puniceus L.)
Annual Saltmarsh Aster (Aster subulatus Michx.)
Tradescant Aster (Aster tradescanti L.)
Watershield (Brasenia schreberi J.F. Gmel.)
Common Marsh-marigold (Caltha palustris L.)
Marsh Bellflower (Campanula aparinoides Pursh)
Round-leaf Sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.)
Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.)
Linear-leaf Willow-herb (Epilobium leptophyllum Raf.)
American Burn (Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC.)
Floating Penny-wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.)
Virginia Water-leaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum L.)
Purple-Rocket (Iodanthus pinnatifidus (Michx.) Steud.)
Downy Lobelia (Lobelia puberula Michx.)
Narrow-leaf Seedbox (Ludwigia linearis Walter)
Virginia Bluebells (Mertensia virginica (L.) Pers.)
Large-seed Forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides L.)
American Lotus (Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers.)
Yellow Cow-lily (Nuphar luteum (L.) Sibth. & J.E. Smith)
White Water-lily (Nymphaea odorata Soland. in Ait.)
Glaucous Grass-of-Parnassus (Parnassia glauca Raf.)
Common Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.)
Black-seed Plantain (Plantago rugelii Decne.)
Red Milkwort (Polygala sanguinea L.)
Halberd-leaf Tearthumb (Polygonum arifolium L.)
Prostrate Knotweed (Polygonum aviculare L.)
Dense-flower Smartweed (Polygonum densiflorum Meisn.)
Marshpepper Smartweed (Polygonum hydropiper L.)
Little Water-pepper (Polygonum opelousanum Riddell)
Clustered Dock (Rumex conglomeratus Murray)
Water Pimpernel (Samolus parviflorus Raf.)
Clustered Black-snakeroot (Sanicula gregaria Bickn.)
Wreath Golden-rod (Solidago caesia L.)
Canada Golden-rod (Solidago canadensis L.)
Willow Golden-rod (Solidago salicina Ell.)
Marsh Blue Violet (Viola cucullata Ait.)
Return to list of groups.
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