Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Asatoor, A. M., and Armstrong, M. D. 1967. 3-Methylhistidine, a component of actin. Biochem. and Biophys. Res. Comm. 26:168-174. Ballard, F. J., and Tomas, F. M. 1983. 3-Methylhistidine as a measure of skeletal muscle protein breakdown in human subjects: the case for its continued use. Clin. Sci. 65:209-215. Cahill, G. F., Jr. 1970. Starvation in man. New Engl. J. Med. 282:668-675. Case, R. 1996. Biochemical indicators of condition, nutrition, and nitrogen excretion in caribou. Rangifer Special Issue No. 9:201-208. Coles, E. H. 1980. Veterinary clinical pathology. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa. Cowgill, R. W., and Freeberg, B. 1957. The metabolism of methylhistidine compounds in animals. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 71:466-472. Daniel, P. M., Pratt, O. E., and Spargo, E. 1977. The metabolic homeostatic role of muscle and its function as a store of protein. Lancet 2:446-448. DelGiudice, G. D., Mech, L. D., Seal, U. S., and Karns, P. D. 1987. Winter fasting and refeeding effects on urine characteristics in white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage.51:860-864. DelGiudice, G. D., Seal, U. S., and Mech, L. D. 1988. Response of hydroxyproline to dietary protein and fasting in white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Dis. 24:75-79. DelGiudice, G. D., Mech, L. D., and Seal, U. S. 1990. Effects of winter undernutrition on body composition and physiological profiles of white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage 54:539-550. DelGiudice, G. D., Seal, U. S., and Mech, L. D. 1991a. Indicators of severe undernutrition in urine of free-ranging elk during winter. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 19:106-110. DelGiudice, G. D., Singer, F. J., and Seal, U. S. 1991b. Physiological assessment of winter nutritional deprivation in elk of Yellowstone National Park. J. Wildl. Manage. 55:653-664. DelGiudice, G. D., Mech, L. D., Kunkel, K. E., Gese, E. M., and Seal, U. S. 1992. Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota. Can. J. Zool. 70:974-983. DelGiudice, G. D., Mech, L. D., and Seal, U. S. 1994a. Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter. J. Wildl. Manage. 58:430-436. DelGiudice, G. D., Mech, L. D., and Seal, U. S. 1994b. Nutritional restriction and acid-base balance in white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Dis. 30:247-253. DelGiudice, G. D., Peterson, R. O., and Samuel, W. M. 1997. Trends of winter nutritional restriction, ticks, and numbers of moose on Isle Royale. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:895-903. Elia, M., Carter, A., Bacon, S., Winearls, C. G., and Smith, R. 1981. Clinical usefulness of urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion in indicating muscle protein breakdown. Br. Med. Bull. 282:351-354. Eriksson, L., and Valtonen, M. 1974. Seasonal changes in renal urea concentrations in the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) Ann. Zool. Fenn. 11:200-203. Fitch, W. L., Watson, J. E., and King, J. C. 1986. Measurement of urinary 3-methylhistidine with cationic-exchange resin. Anal. Biochem. 154:632-637. Forbes, G. B. 1988. Body composition: influence of nutrition, disease, growth, and aging. In Modern nutrition in health and disease. Edited by M. E. Shils and V. R. Young. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. pp. 533-556. Garrott, R. A., White, P. J., Vagnoni, D. B., and Heisey, D. M. 1996. Purine derivatives in snow-urine as a dietary index for free-ranging elk. J. Wildl. Manage. 60:735-743. Hanks, J. 1981. Characterization of population condition. In Dynamics of large mammal populations. Edited by C. W. Fowler and T. D. Smith. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, New York. pp. 47-73. Harris, C. I., and Milne, G. 1978. Urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine in cattle as a measure of muscle protein degradation. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 38:11A. Harris, C. I., and Milne, G. 1980. The urinary excretion of NT-methylhistidine in sheep: an invalid index of muscle protein breakdown. Br. J. Nutr. 44:129-140. Harris, C. I., and Milne, G. 1981. The inadequacy of urinary NT-methylhistidine excretion in the pig as a measure of muscle protein breakdown. Br. J. Nutr. 45:423-429. Haverberg, L. N., Deckelbaum, L., Bilmazes, C., Munro, H. N., and Young, V. R. 1975. Myofibrillar protein turnover and urinary NT-methylhistidine output. Response to dietary supply of protein and energy. Biochem. J. 152:503-510. Heymsfield, S. B., and Williams, P. J. 1988. Nutritional assessment by clinical and biochemical methods. In Modern nutrition in health and disease. Edited by M. E. Shils and V. R. Young. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. pp. 817-860. Hoffer, L. J. 1988. Starvation. In Modern nutrition in health and disease. Edited by M. E. Shils and V. R. Young. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. pp. 774-794. Hovell, F. D. Deb., Orskov, E. R., Kyle, D. J., and MacLeod, N. A. 1987. Undernutrition in sheep. Nitrogen repletion by N-depleted sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 57:77-88. Jaffe, M. 1886. Ueber den Reiderschlag, welchen Pikrinsaeure in normalen Harn erzeugt and ueber neue Reuktion des Kreatinins. Z. Phys. Chem. 10:391-400. Johnson, P., Harris, C. I., and Perry, S. V. 1967. 3-Methylhistidine in actin and other muscle proteins. Biochem. J. 105:361-370. Long, C. L., Haverberg, L. N., Young, V. R., Kinney, J. M., Munro, H. N., and Geiger, J. W. 1975. Metabolism of 3-methylhistidine in man. Metabolism 24:929-935. Mautz, W. W. 1978. Nutrition and carrying capacity. In Big game of North America: ecology and management. Edited by J. L. Schmidt and D. L. Gilbert. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg. Pa. pp. 321-348. Moen, R., and DelGiudice, G. D. 1997. Simulating nitrogen metabolism and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios in ruminants. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:881-894. Nagabhushan, V. S., and Narasinga Rao, B. S. 1978. Studies on 3-methylhistidine metabolism in children with protein-energy malnutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31:1322-1327. Neter, J., Wasserman, W., and Kutner, M. H. 1990. Applied linear statistical models. Third Edition. Irwin Publishing, Boston. Mass. Nishizawa, N., Noguchi, T., and Hareyama, S. 1977. Fractional flux rates of NT-methylhistidine in skin and gastrointestine: the contribution of these tissues to urinary excretion of NT-methylhistidine in the rat. Br. J. Nutr. 38:149-151. Parker, K. L., DelGiudice, G. D., and Gillingham, M. P. 1993. Do urinary urea nitrogen and cortisol ratios of creatinine reflect body fat reserves in black-tailed deer? Can. J. Zool. 71:1841-1848. Rennie, M. J., and Millward, D. J. 1983. 3-Methylhistidine excretion and the urinary 3-methylhistidine/creatinine ratio are poor indicators of skeletal muscle protein breakdown. Clin. Sci. 65:217-225. SAS Institute Inc. 1996. SAS/STAT software: changes and enhancements through Release 6.11, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N.C. Tallen, H., Stein, W. H., and Moore, S. 1955. 3-Methylhistidine, a new amino acid from human urine. J. Biol. Chem. 206:825-834. Torbit, S. C., Carpenter, L. H., Swift, D. M., and Alldredge, A. W. 1985. Differential loss of fat and protein by mule deer during winter. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:80-85. Vagnoni, D. B., Garrott, R. A., Cook, J. G., White, P. J., and Clayton, M. K. 1996. Urinary allantoin:creatinine ratios as a dietary index for elk. Wildl. Manage. 60:728-734. Verme, L. J., and Ullrey, D. E. 1984. Physiology and nutrition. In White- tailed deer: ecology and management. Edited by L. K. Halls. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pa. pp. 91-118. Vielma, H., Mendez, J., Druckenmiller, M., and Lukaski, H. 1981. A practical and reliable method for determination of urinary 3-methylhistidine. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 5:75-82. Warren, R. J., Kirkpatrick, R. L., Oelschlaeger, A., Scanlon, P. F., Webb, K. E., Jr., and Whelan, J. B. 1982. Energy, protein, and seasonal influences on white-tailed deer fawn nutritional indices. J. Wildl. Manage. 46:302-312. Wolfinger, R. 1993. Covariance structure selection in general linear mixed models. Commun. Stat. Simula. 22:1079-1106. Young, V. R., Alexis, S. C., Baliga, B. S., Munro, H. N., and Muecke, W. 1972. Fate of administered 3-methylhistidine. Lack of muscle transfer ribonucleic acid charging and quantitative excretion as 3-methylhistidine and its N-acetyl derivative. J. Biol. Chem. 247:3592-3600. Young, V. R., Haverberg, L. N., Bilmazes, C., and Munro, H. N. 1973. Potential use of 3-methylhistidine excretion as an index of progressive reduction in muscle protein catabolism during starvation. Metabolism 22:1429-1436. Young, V. R., and Munro, H. N. 1978. NT-Methylhistidine (3-methylhistidine) and muscle protein turnover: an overview. Fed. Proc. 37:2291-2300.