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Wolf Pack Size and Food Acquisition

Literature Cited


Ballard, W. B., J. S. Whitman, and C. L. Gardner.  1987.  Ecology of an
     exploited wolf population in south-central Alaska.  Wildlife Monograph
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Bekoff, M., and M. C. Wells. 1980.  The social ecology of coyotes.  Scientific
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Caraco, T., and L. L. Wolf.  1975.  Ecological determinants of group sizes of
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Carbyn, L. N., S. M. Oosenbrug, and D. W. Anions.  1993.  Wolves, bison and 
     the dynamics related to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in Canada's Wood Buffalo
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Dale, B. W., L. G. Adams, and R. T. Bowyer.  1994.  Functional response of
     wolves preying on barren-ground caribou in a multiple-prey ecosystem.
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_____.  1995.  Winter wolf predation in a multiple ungulate prey system, Gates
     of the Arctic National Park, Alaska.  Pages 223-230 in L. N. Carbyn, 
     S. H. Fritts, and D. R. Seip, eds.  Ecology and conservation of wolves in 
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Fritts, S. H., and L. D. Mech.  1981.  Dynamics, movements, and feeding ecology
     of a newly protected wolf population in northwestern Minnesota. 	Wildlife 
     Monograph 79.  Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C.
	
Fuller, T. K.  1989.  Population dynamics of wolves in north-central Minnesota.
     Wildlife Monograph 105.  Wildlife Society, Washington, D.C.
	
Fuller, T. K., and L. B. Keith.  1980.  Wolf population dynamics and prey 
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Gese, E. M., and L. D. Mech.  1991.  Dispersal of wolves (Canis lupus) in
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Hayes, R. D.  1995.  Numerical and functional responses of wolves and 
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Kolenosky, G. B.  1972.  Wolf predation on wintering deer in east-central
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Mech, L. D.  1966.  The wolves of Isle Royale.  U.S. National Parks Fauna 
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_____.  1970.  The wolf:  the ecology and behavior of an endangered species.
     Natural History Press, New York.
	
_____.  1977.  Population trend and winter deer consumption in a Minnesota
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     Proceedings of the 1975 Predator Symposium.  Montana Forest and 
     Conservation Experiment Station, University of Montana, Missoula.
	
_____.  1988.  The arctic wolf:  living with the pack.  Voyageur, Stillwater,
     Minn.
	
Mech, L. D., and L. D. Frenzel, eds.  1971.  Ecological studies of the timber
     wolf in northeastern Minnesota.  North Central Forest Experiment Station, 
     USDA Forest Service Research Paper NC-52.  St. Paul, Minn.
	
Microsoft.  1995.  Microsoft Excel for Windows '95, version 7.0 Microsoft 
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Murie, A.  1944.  The wolves of Mount McKinley, U.S. National Park Service
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Nudds, T. D.  1978.  Convergence of group size strategies by mammalian social
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Packer, C., and L. Ruttan.  1988.  The evolution of cooperative hunting. 
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Peterson, R. O., J. D. Woolington, and T. N. Bailey.  1984.  Wolves of the
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Promberger, C., R. D. Hayes, and P. Kaczensky.  1993.  Interspecific competition 
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     and J. Castroviejo, eds.  Simposio Internacional obre el Lobo, León, Spain.  
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Pulliam, H. R., and T. Caraco.  1978.  Living in groups:  is there an optimal
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Rodman, P. S.  1981.  Inclusive fitness and group size with a reconsideration
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Schoener, T.  1971.  Theory of feeding strategies.  Annual Review of Ecology 
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Stenlund, M. H.  1955.  A field study of the timber wolf (Canis lupus) on 
     the Superior National Forest, Minnesota.  Technical Bulletin Number 4.  
     Minnesota Department of Conservation, St. Paul.
	
Thurber, J. M., and R. O. Peterson.  1993.  Effects of population density and
     pack size on the foraging ecology of gray wolves.  Journal of Mammology 
     74:879-889.
 	
Zimen, E.  1976.  On the regulation of pack size in wolves.  Zeitschrift für
     Tierpsychologie 40:300-341.

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