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Wolf-Bison Interactions in Yellowstone National Park

Literature Cited


Bangs, E. E., and S. H. Fritts.  1996.  Reintroducing the gray wolf to central 
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Carbyn, L. N. 1983. Wolf predation on elk in Riding Mountain National Park, 
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Carbyn, L. N., S. M. Oosenbrug, and D. W. Anions.  1993.  Wolves, bison and 
      the dynamics related to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in Canada's Wood 
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Cheatum, R. L. 1949. Bone marrow as an index of malnutrition in deer. New York 
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Despain, D. G.  1990.  Yellowstone vegetation: consequences of environment and 
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Diamond, S.  1994.  The prairie wolf returns.  International Wolf 4:3-7.

Eberhardt, L. L., R. A. Garrott, P. J. White, and P. J. Gogan.  1998.  
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Fritts, S. H. 1983.  Record dispersal by a wolf from Minnesota.  Journal of 
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Fritts, S. H., and L. D. Mech. 1981.  Dynamics, movements, and feeding ecology 
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Fritts, S. H., W. J. Paul, L. D. Mech, and D. P. Scott. 1992.  Trends and 
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Fritts, S. H., et al.  1997.  Planning and implementing a reintroduction of 
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Houston, D. B.  1982.  The northern Yellowstone elk: ecology and management.  
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Larter, N. C., A. R. E. Sinclair, and C. C. Gates. 1994. The response of 
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Lemke, T. O., J. A. Mack, and D. B. Houston. 1998. Winter range expansion by 
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Lopez, B. H. 1978. Of wolves and men. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Meagher, M.  1973.  The bison of Yellowstone National Park.  National Park 
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Meagher, M. 1989. Range expansion by bison in Yellowstone National Park. 
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Meagher, M. 1998. Recent changes in Yellowstone bison numbers and distribution. 
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Meagher, M., S. Cain, T. Toman, J. Kropp, and D. Bosman. 1997. Pp. 47-55 in 
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Mech, L. D.  1966.  The wolves of Isle Royale.  United States National Park 
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Mech, L. D. 1970. The wolf: the ecology and behavior of an endangered species.    
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Mech, L. D. 1977.  Population trend and winter deer consumption in a Minnesota 
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Mech, L. D.,  L. G. Adams, T. J. Meier, J. W. Burch, and B. W. Dale. 1998. The 
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Mech, L. D., and L. D. Frenzel, Jr. 1971.  Ecological studies of the timber 
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Merrill, E. H., and M. S. Boyce.  1991.  Summer range and elk population 
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Miquelle, D. 1985. Food habits and range conditions of bison and sympatric 
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Peterson, R. O. 1977. Wolf ecology and prey relationships on Isle Royale. 
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Phillips, M. K., and D. W. Smith.  1996.  The wolves of Yellowstone.  Voyageur 
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Van Camp, J. 1987. Predation on bison. Pp. 25-33 in Bison ecology in relation 
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Varley, J. D., and W. G. Brewster. 1992. Wolves for Yellowstone? A report to 
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Weaver, J. L., and G. T. Haas. 1998. Bison in the diet of wolves denning 
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