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Accuracy and Precision of Estimating Age of
Gray Wolves by Tooth Wear

Literature Cited

Allen, S. H.  1974.  Modified techniques for aging red fox using canine teeth.  
     Journal of Wildlife Management 38:152-154.

Ballard, W. B., G. M. Matson, and P. R. Krausman.  1995.  Comparison of two 
     methods to age gray wolf teeth.  Pages 455-460 in L. N. Carbyn, S. H. 
     Fritts, and D. R. Seip, editors.  Ecology and conservation of wolves in a 
     changing world.  Canadian Circumpolar Institute, Occasional Publication 35.

_____, J. S. Whitman, and C. L. Gardner. 1987.  Ecology of an exploited wolf 
     population in south-central Alaska.  Wildlife Monographs 98.

Bowen, W. O.  1982.  Determining the age of coyotes, Canis latrans, by tooth 
     sections and tooth wear patterns.  Canadian Field-Naturalist 96:339-341.

Campana, S. E., M. C. Annand, and J. I. McMillan.  1995.  Graphical and 
     statistical methods for determining the consistency of age determinations.  
     Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 124:131-138.

Dimmick, R. W., and M. R. Pelton.  1994.  Criteria of sex and age.  Pages 169-
     214 in T. A. Bookout, editor.  Research and management techniques for 
     wildlife and habitats.  The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Fuller, R. K., and L. B. Keith.  1980.  Wolf population dynamics and prey 
     relationships in northeastern Alberta.  Journal of Wildlife Management  

Gier, H. T. 1957.  Coyotes in Kansas.  Agriculture Experiment Station, Kansas 
     State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.
Gipson, P. S., and W. B. Ballard. 1998.  Accounts of famous North American 
     wolves, Canis lupus.  Canadian Field-Naturalist 112:724-739.

_____, _____, and R. M. Nowak.  1998.  Famous North American wolves and the
     credibility of early wildlife literature.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 26:

Goodwin, E. A., and W. B. Ballard.  1985.  Use of tooth cementum for age 
     determination of gray wolves.  Journal of Wildlife Management 49:313-316.

Harshyne, W. A., D. R. Diefenbach, G. L. Alt, and G. M. Matson.  1998.  Analysis 
     of error from cementum-annuli age estimates of known-age Pennsylvania black 
     bears.  Journal of Wildlife Management 62:1281-1291.

Landon, D. B., C. A. Waite, R. O. Peterson, and L. D. Mech.  1998.  Evaluation 
     of age determination techniques for gray wolves.   Journal of Wildlife 
     Management 62:674-682.

Linhart, S. B., and F. F. Knowlton.  1967.  Determining age of coyotes by tooth 
     cementum layers.  Journal of Wildlife Management 31:362-365.

Mech, L. D.  1970.  The wolf: the ecology and behavior of an endangered species.  
     Natural History Press, Garden City, New York, USA.

_____.  1988.  Longevity in wild wolves.  Journal of Mammalogy 69:197-198.

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