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"Standing Over" and "Hugging" in Wild Wolves, Canis lupus

Literature Cited


Carbyn, L.N. 1974. Wolf predation and behavioral interactions with elk and 
     other ungulates in an area of high prey density. Canadian Wildlife Service
     Department of Environment. 233 pages.
     
Clark, K.R.F. 1971. Food habits and behavior of the tundra wolf on central
     Baffin island. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto, Ontario. 223 
     pages.
     
Derix, R.R.W.M., H. de Vries, and J.A.R.A.M. van Hooff. 1994. Relationships in 
     wolves (Canis lupus) and African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in captivity. 
     Pages 20-56 in The social organization of wolves and African wild dogs. 
     Edited by R.R.W.M. Derix. Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
     
Goodman, P.A., and E. Klinghammer. 1985. Wolf ethogram. North American Wildlife 
     Park Foundation, Ethology Series Number 3. 31 pages.

Haber, G.C. 1977. Socio-ecological dynamics of wolves and prey in a subarctic
     ecosystem. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver,
     Canada. 786 pages. 
     
Mech, L.D. 1974. Current techniques in the study of elusive wilderness 
     carnivores. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Game 
     Biologists 11:315-322.
     
Mech, L.D. 1988. The Arctic Wolf: Living with the pack. Voyageur Press, 
     Stillwater, Minnesota. 128 pages.
     
Mech, L.D. 1995. A ten-year history of the demography and productivity of an
     arctic wolf pack. Arctic 48:329-332.
     
Mech, L.D. 1999. Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs.
     Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1196-1203.
     
Murie, A. 1944. The Wolves of Mount McKinley. National Parks Fauna Series 
     Number 5. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 238 pages.
     
National Geographic. 1988. White wolf. National Geographic Explorer video. 
     National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.
     
Seal, U.S., E.D. Plotka, J.M. Packard, and L.D. Mech. 1979. Endocrine 
     correlates of reproduction in the wolf. Biology of Reproduction 21:
     1057-1066.
     
Schenkel, R. 1947. Expression studies of wolves. Behavior 1:81-129.

Zimen, E. 1982. A wolf pack sociogram. Pages 282-322 in Wolves of the world.
      Edited by F.H. Harrington, and P. C. Paquet. Noyes Publications, Park 
      Ridge, New Jersey. 474 pages.

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