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Winter Severity and Wolf Predation on
a Formerly Wolf-free Elk Herd

Literature Cited


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BOYD, D. K., R. R. REAM, D. H. PLETSCHER, and M. W. FAIRCHILD. 1994. Prey taken 
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CARBYN, L. N. 1983. Wolf predation on elk in Riding Mountain National Park, 
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COOK, R. S., editor. 1993. Ecological issues on reintroducing wolves into 
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COUGHENOUR, M. B., and F. J. SINGER. 1996. Elk population processes in 
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_____.	1977. Population trend and winter deer consumption in a Minnesota 
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_____, L. G. ADAMS, T. J. MEIER, J. W. BURCH, and B. W. DALE. 1998. The wolves 
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_____, and L. D. FRENZEL, JR. 1971. Ecological studies of the timber wolf in 
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_____, and P. D. KARNS. 1977. Role of the wolf in a deer decline in the
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MILLER, F. L., A. GUNN, and E. BROUGHTON. 1985. Surplus killing as exemplified 
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NEILAND, K. A. 1970. Weight of dried marrow as indicator of fat in caribou 
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PETERSON, R. O. 1977. Wolf ecology and prey relationships on Isle Royale. U.S. 
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_____, and D. L. ALLEN. 1974. Snow conditions as a parameter in moose-wolf
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PIMLOTT, D. H., J. A. SHANNON, and G. B. KOLENOSKY. 1969. The ecology of the 
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SHOESMITH, M. W. 1979. Seasonal movements and social behavior of elk on Mirror 
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SINGER, F. J., A. HARTING, K. K. SYMONDS, and M. B. COUGHENOUR. 1997. Density 
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_____, and J. A. MACK. 1993. Potential ungulate prey for gray wolves. Pages 
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