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A Record Large Wolf, Canis lupus, Pack in Minnesota


A pack of 23 Wolves was observed on 19 September 1998 by Jack E. Stewart of Ogilvie, Minnesota, in Pine County 8 km WNW of the town of Rutledge (46° 18'N; 92° 58'W). Some 7 km northwest of Stewart's observation, Ms. Shirley Kwapick of Minneapolis, Minnesota counted a pack of 22 Wolves crossing the driveway of her summer camp about 25 November 1998. Stewart (1999) recounted his observation in a general way in a popular article. I interviewed Stewart and Kwapick to document the details of their observations and to record them here for the scientific community, along with a discussion of their significance. I also confirmed the presence of an active Wolf den the following year within 1.6 km of the Stewart observation.
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