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Leadership in Wolf, Canis lupus, Packs

Literature Cited


Ballard, W. B., J. S. Whitman, and C. L. Gardner.  1987.  Ecology of an 
     exploited wolf population in south-central Alaska.  Wildlife Monograph 
     98:1-54.

Ballard, W. B., L. A. Ayres, C. L. Gardner, and J. W. Foster.  1991.  Den site 
     activity patterns of Gray Wolves, Canis lupus, in southcentral Alaska.  
     Canadian Field-Naturalist 105:497-504.

Clark, K. R. F.  1971.  Food habits and behavior of the tundra wolf on central 
     Baffin island.  Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toronto.  Toronto, Canada.  
     Available from: National Library of Canada, Ottawa.

Gese, E. M., and S. Grothe.  1995.  Analysis of coyote predation on deer and 
     elk during winter in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.  American Midland 
     Naturalist 133:36-43.

Haber, G. C.  1977.  Socio-ecological dynamics of wolves and prey in a 
     subarctic ecosystem.  Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia.  
     Vancouver, B.C.

Harrington, F. H., and L. D. Mech.  1979.  Wolf howling and its role in 
     territorial maintenance.  Behaviour 68:207-249.

Harrington, F. H., P. C. Paquet, J. Ryon, and J. C. Fentress.  1982.  Monogamy 
     in wolves: A review of the evidence.  Pages 209-22 in Wolves of the world.  
     Edited by F. H. Harrington, and P. C. Paquet.  Noyes Publication, Park 
     Ridge, New Jersey.  474 pages.

Hillis, T. L.  1990.  The demography of the tundra wolf, Canis lupus, in the 
     Keewatin District, Northwest Territories.  MS. thesis, Department of 
     Biology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

Jordan, P. A., P. C. Shelton, and D. L. Allen.  1967.  Numbers, turnover, and 
     social structure of the Isle Royale wolf population.  American Zoologist 
     7:233-252. 
 
Mech, L. D.  1966.  The wolves of Isle Royale.  National Parks Fauna Series 
     Number 7.  Washington, D. C.  210 pages. 

Mech, L. D.  1970.  The Wolf: The ecology and behavior of an endangered species.  
     Doubleday Publishing Company, New York.  384 pages.

Mech, L. D.  1986.  Wolf numbers and population trend in the Superior National 
     Forest, 1967-1985.  U.S.D.A. North Central Forest Experiment Station 
     Research Paper NC-270.  6 pages.

Mech, L. D.  1988.  The arctic wolf: Living with the pack.  Voyageur Press, 
     Stillwater, Minnesota.  128 pages.

Mech, L. D.  1993.  Details of a confrontation between two wild wolves. 
     Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:1900-1903. 

Mech, L. D.  1994.  Regular and homeward travel speeds of arctic wolves.  
     Journal of Mammalogy 75:741-742. 

Mech, L. D.  1995a.  A ten-year history of the demography and productivity of 
     an arctic wolf pack.  Arctic 48:329-332.

Mech, L. D.  1995b.  Summer movements and behavior of an arctic wolf, Canis 
     lupus, pack without pups.  Canadian Field Naturalist 109:473-475.

Mech, L. D.  1999.  Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf 
     packs.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1196-1203.

Mech, L. D., and M. E. Nelson.  1990.  Non-family wolf packs.  Canadian Field 
     Naturalist 104:482-483.
 
Mech, L. D., L. G. Adams, T. J. Meier, J. W. Burch, and B. W. Dale.  1998.  The 
     wolves of Denali.  University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 
     227 pages.

Mech, L. D., P. C. Wolf, and J. M. Packard.  1999.  The role of regurgitation in
     food transfer among wild wolves.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1192-1195.

Murie, A.  1944.  The wolves of Mount McKinley.  U.S. National Park Service 
     Fauna Series Number 5.  Washington, D. C.  238 pages.

National Geographic.  1988.  White wolf.  National Geographic Explorer video.  
     National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C.

Packard, J. M.  1980.  Deferred reproduction in wolves (Canis lupus). Ph.D. 
     thesis.  University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.  

Peterson, R. O.  1977.  Wolf ecology and prey relationships on Isle Royale. U.S.
     National Park Service Scientific Monograph Series 11.  Washington, D. C.  
     210 pages.

Pulliainen, E.  1965.  Studies on the wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Finland. 
     Annales Zoologici Fennici 2:215-259.

Rausch, R. A.  1967.  Some aspects of the population ecology of wolves, Alaska.  
     American Zoologist 7:253-265. 

Smith, D., T. J. Meier, E. Geffen, L. D. Mech, J. W. Burch, L. G. Adams, and 
     R. K. Wayne.  1997.  Is incest common in gray wolf packs?  Behavioral 
     Ecology 8:384-391.
 
Zimen, E.  1976.  On the regulation of pack size in wolves.  Zeitschrift fur 
     Tierpsychology 40:300-341. 

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