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Seasonal Food Habits of Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) in
Cropland and Rangeland Landscapes in Western Kansas

Study Area


We collected swift fox scats on two 259-km² study areas, approximately 5 km apart, in Sherman and Wallace counties in western Kansas in 1993 and 1996 (Fig. 1). Each study area represented a strikingly different land use and predominant habitat cover. The landscape of one area was highly fragmented into cropland fields (hereafter, cropland), and the other was largely contiguous native grassland, primarily pasture (hereafter, rangeland). The cropland was relatively flat, with approximately 76% of the area in cultivated fields. Most fields were in a dryland winter wheat-fallow rotation; others were used for irrigated corn and sunflower, and milo and sorghum production. Ten percent of the area was enrolled in the U.S. Department of the Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and seeded primarily to big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), and switch grass (Panicium virgatum). The area had 125 km of roads and 20 occupied homes. The rangeland was characterized by rolling hills and approximately 87% of the area was moderately to heavily grazed native pastures with primarily buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and hairy grama (B. hirsuta). A few cropland fields (wheat, sunflower) were interspersed in the rangeland. The rangeland area had 66 km of roads and 10 occupied homes. Both study areas had few trees (<1% of landscape).

Two maps: Cropland Study Area (left) and Rangeland Study Area (right).  Areas represented by map: Pasture, Cropland, CRP, Roads, Survey Routes, Alternate Routes.
Fig. 1.  Two 10-km2 study areas in western Kansas surveyed for food habits of swift foxes in 1993 and 1996. Five 8-km long survey routes on each study area are indicated; an alternate route replaced the nearest route for one survey because part of the original route was inaccessible. Cropland habitat includes small grain, row crops and fallow; grassland includes pastures. Nongrazed grassland includes Conservation Reserve Program land planted to tall grasses and hayland. The corners of the areas are expressed in NAD-27 Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates for zone 14

Annual precipitation averaged 46.2 cm and occurred primarily in spring and summer; however, there is typically a wide variation in annual precipitation. Temperatures were typical of continental climates, with January the coldest month (Mean of x = -2.6 C) and July warmest (Mean of x = 23.1 C; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1993-1997).


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