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Differential Use of a Wolf, Canis lupus, Pack Territory Edge and Core

Literature Cited

Carbyn, L.N. 1983. Wolf predation on elk in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, Journal of Wildlife Management 47:963-976.

Fritts, S.H., and L.D. Mech. 1981. Dynamics, movements, and feeding ecology of a newly protected wolf population in northwestern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 80:1-79.

Hatter, I.W. 1984. Effects of wolf predation on recruitment of black-tailed deer on northeastern Vancouver Island. Master's thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow.

Hebert, D.M., J. Youds, R. Davies, H. Langin, D. Janz, and G.W. Smith. 1982. Preliminary investigations of the Vancouver Island wolf (Canis lupus crassodon) prey relationships. Pages 54-70 in Wolves of the World. Edited by F. H. Harrington and P. C. Paquet. Noyes Publishers, Park Ridge, New Jersey.

Hickerson, H. 1965. The Virginia deer and intertribal buffer zones in the upper Mississippi Valley. Pages 43-66 in Man's culture and animals. Publication 8. 44: 253-258. Edited by A. Leeds and A. P. Vayda. American Association Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.

Hickerson, H. 1970. The Chippewa and their neighbors: a study in ethnohistory. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

Hoskinson, R.L., and L.D. Mech. 1976. White-tailed deer migration and its role in wolf predation. Journal of Wildlife Management 40:429-441.

Lewis, M.A., and J.D. Murray. 1993. Modeling territoriality and wolf-deer interactions. Nature 366:738-740.

Martin, P.S., and C.R. Szuter. 1999. War zones and game sinks in Lewis and Clark's west. Conservation Biology 13:36-45.

Mech, L.D. 1973. Wolf numbers in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NC-97. North Central Forest Experiment Station; St. Paul, Minnesota.

Mech, L.D. 1977a. Wolf-pack buffer zones as prey reservoirs. Science 198:320-321.

Mech, L.D. 1977b. Population trend and winter deer consumption in a Minnesota wolf pack. Pages 55-83 in Proceedings of the 1975 Predator Symposium. Edited by R.L. Phillips and C. Jonkel. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station. University of Montana, Missoula.

Mech, L.D. 1994. Buffer zones of territories of gray wolves as regions of intraspecific strife. Journal of Mammalogy 75: 199-202.

Mech, L.D., L.G. Adams, T.J. Meier, J.W. Burch, and B.W. Dale. 1998. The wolves of Denali. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Mohr, C.O. 1947. Table of equivalent populations of North American small mammals. American Midland Naturalist 37: 223-249.

Nelson, M.E., and L.D. Mech. 1981. Deer social organization and wolf predation in northeastern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 77: 1-53.

Rogers, L.L., L.D. Mech, D.K. Dawson, J.M. Peek, and M. Korb. 1980. Deer distribution in relation to wolf pack territory edges. Journal of Wildlife Management 44: 253-258

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