Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Andelt, W. F. 1987. Coyote predation. Pages 128-140 in M. Novak, J. A. Baker, M. E. Obbard, and B. Malloch, eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. Ontario Trappers Assoc., Toronto. 1150 pp. ______, and P. S. Gipson. 1979. Home range, activity, and daily movements of coyotes. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:944-951. Bjerke, K. 1991. An overview of the agriculture resources conservation program. Pages 7-10 in L. A. Joyce, J. E. Mitchell, and M. D. Skold, eds. The conservation reserveyesterday, today and tomorrow. U.S. For. Serv., Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-203. Campbell, B. H. 1990. Factors affecting the nesting success of dusky Canada geese, Branta canadensis occidentalis, on the Copper River Delta, Alaska. Can. Field-Nat. 104:567-574. Choromanski-Norris, J., E. K. Fritzell, and A. B. Sargeant. 1989. Movements and habitat use of Franklin's ground squirrels in duck-nesting habitat. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:324-331. Cowardin, L. M., D. S. Gilmer, and C. W. Shaiffer. 1985. Mallard recruitment in the agricultural environment of North Dakota. Wildl. Monogr. 92. 37pp. ______, and D. H. Johnson. 1979. Mathematics and mallard management. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:18-35. ______, A. B. Sargeant, and H. F. Duebbert. 1983. Problems and potentials for prairie ducks. Naturalist 34:4-11. Dzubin, A., and J. B. Gollop. 1972. Aspects of mallard breeding ecology in Canadian parkland and grassland. Pages 113-152 in Population ecology of migratory birds. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Wildl. Res. Rep. 2. Einarsen, A. S. 1956. Determination of some predator species by field signs. Oregon State Monogr. Stud. Zool. 10. 34pp. Gese, E. M., O. J. Rongstad, and W. R. Mytton. 1989. Population dynamics of coyotes in southeastern Colorado. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:174-181. Glup, S. S., and L. L. McDaniel. 1988. Bullsnake predation on waterfowl nests on Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, Nebraska. Proc. Great Plains Wildl. Damage Control Workshop 8:149-152. Greenwood, R. J. 1986. Influence of striped skunk removal on upland duck nest success in North Dakota. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14:6-11. ______, A. B. Sargeant, D. H. Johnson, L. M. Cowardin, and T. L. Shaffer. 1987. Mallard nest success and recruitment in prairie Canada. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 52:298-309. Hanson, W. C., and L. L. Eberhardt. 1971. A Columbia river Canada goose population, 1950-1970. Wildl. Monogr. 28. 61pp. Harrison, D. J. 1986. Coyote dispersal, mortality, and spatial interactions with red foxes in Maine. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Maine, Orono. 48pp. ______, J. A. Bissonette, and J. A. Sherburne. 1989. Spatial relationships between coyotes and red foxes in eastern Maine. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:181-185. ______, and J. R. Gilbert. 1985. Denning ecology and movements of coyotes in Maine during pup rearing. J. Mammal. 66:712-719. ______, and J. A. Harrison. 1984. Foods of adult coyotes and their known-aged pups. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:922-926. Higgins, K. F. 1977. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 41:232-242. ______, L. M. Kirsch, H. F. Duebbert, A. T. Klett, J. T. Lokemoen, H. W. Miller, and A. D. Kruse. 1977. Construction and operation of a cable chain drag for nest searches. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Wildl. Leafl. 512. 14pp. Hill, D. A. 1984. Clutch predation in relation to nest density in mallard and tufted duck. Wildfowl 35:151-156. Johnson, D. H. 1979. Estimating nest success: the Mayfield method and an alternative. Auk 96:651-661. ______, and A. B. Sargeant. 1977. Impact of red fox predation on the sex ratio of prairie mallards. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Res. Rep. 6. 56pp. ______, ______, and R. J. Greenwood. 1989. Importance of individual species of predators in nesting success of ducks in the Canadian Prairie Pothole Region. Can. J. Zool. 67:291-297. Johnson, M. A., T. C. Hinz, and T. L. Kuck. 1987. Duck nest success and predators in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana: the Central Flyway study. Proc. Great Plains Wildl. Damage Control Workshop 8:125-133. Kantrud, H. A., G. L. Krapu, and G. A. Swanson. 1989. Prairie basin wetlands of the Dakotas: a community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 85(7.28) 112pp. Keith, L. B. 1961. A study of waterfowl ecology on small impoundments in southeastern Alberta. Wildl. Monogr. 6. 88pp. Klett, A. T., H. F. Duebbert, C. A. Faanes, and K. F. Higgins. 1986. Techniques for studying nest success of ducks in upland habitats in the Prairie Pothole Region. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 158. 24pp. ______, T. L. Shaffer, and D. H. Johnson. 1988. Duck nest success in the Prairie Pothole Region. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:431-440. Krapu, G. L., A. T. Klett, and D. G. Jorde. 1983. The effect of variable spring water conditions on mallard reproduction. Auk 100:689-698. Kruuk, H. 1964. Predators and anti-predator behaviours of the black-headed gull (Laris ridibundis L.). Behaviour 11 (Suppl.):1-130. Major, J. T., and J. A. Sherburne. 1987. Interspecific relationships of coyotes, bobcats, and red foxes in western Maine. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:606-616. Marshall, I. K. 1967. The effects of high nesting densities on the clutch size of the common eider Somateria mollissima (L.). J. Ecol. 55:1-59. Mayfield, H. 1961. Nesting success calculated from exposure. Wilson Bull. 73:255-261. Rearden, J. D. 1951. Identification of waterfowl nest predators. J. Wildl. Manage. 15:386-395. Ricklefs, R. E. 1969. An analysis of nesting mortality in birds. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 9. 48pp. Sargeant, A. B. 1972. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation. J. Wildl. Manage. 36:225-236. ______. 1982. A case history of a dynamic resource--the red fox. Pages 121-137 in G. C. Sanderson, ed. Midwest furbearer management. Midwest Fish and Wildl. Conf., Wichita, Kans. ______, S. H. Allen, and J. O. Hastings. 1987. Spatial relations between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 39:30-39. ______, and P. M. Arnold. 1984. Predator management for ducks on waterfowl production areas in the northern plains. Proc. Vertebr. Pest Conf. 11:161-167. ______, R. J. Greenwood, M. A. Sovada, and T. L. Shaffer. 1993. Distribution and abundance of predators in the Prairie Pothole Region that affect duck production. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 194. 96pp. SAS Institute Inc. 1990. SAS/STAT guide for personal computers. Version 6.03. SAS Inst. Inc. Cary, N.C. 1028pp. Smith, A. G. 1969. Waterfowl-habitat relationships on the Lousana, Alberta, waterfowl study area. Pages 116-122 in Saskatoon wetlands seminar. Can. Wildl. Serv. Rep. Ser. 6. Snedecore, G. W., and W. G. Cochran. 1980. Statistical methods. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 507pp. Sooter, C. A. 1946. Habits of coyotes in destroying nests and eggs of waterfowl. J. Wildl. Manage. 10:33-38. Sovada, M. A. 1993. Differential effects of coyotes versus red foxes on duck nest success and managed uplands. Ph.D. Thesis, North Dakota State Univ., Fargo. 93pp. Stewart, R. E. 1975. Breeding birds of North Dakota. Tri-Coll. Cent. Environ. Stud., Fargo, N.D. 295pp. Stoudt, J. H. 1971. Ecological factors affecting waterfowl production in the Saskatchewan parklands. U.S. Fish. and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 99. 58pp. Till, J. A., and F. F. Knowlton. 1983. Efficacy of denning in alleviating coyote depredations upon domestic sheep. J. Wildl. Manage. 47:1018-1025. Tinbergen, N. 1965. Von der vorratskammern des rotfuchses (Vulpes vulpes L.). Z. Tierpsychol. 22:119-149. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1990. Climatological data, annual summary, North Dakota. 99(13). Washington, D.C. 38pp. ______. 1991. Climatological data, annual summary, North Dakota. 100(13). Washington, D.C. 38pp. ______. 1992. Climatological data, annual summary, South Dakota. 95(15). Washington, D.C. 38pp. Van Bruggen, T. 1976. The vascular plants of South Dakota. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 538pp. Voigt, D. R., and W. E. Berg. 1987. Coyote. Pages 378-392 in M. Novak, J. A. Baker, M. E. Obbard, and B. Malloch, eds. Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America. Ontario Trappers Assoc., Toronto. 1150pp. ______, and B. D. Earle. 1983. Avoidance of coyotes by red fox families. J. Wildl. Manage. 47:852-857. Weller, M. W. 1956. A simple field candler for waterfowl eggs. J. Wildl. Manage. 20:111-113. ______. 1979. Density and habitat relationships of blue-winged teal nesting in northwestern Iowa. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:367-374.