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Differential Effects of Coyotes and Red Foxes
on Duck Nest Success

Literature Cited


Andelt, W. F.  1987.  Coyote predation.  Pages 128-140 in M. Novak, J. A. Baker, 
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______, and P. S. Gipson.  1979.  Home range, activity, and daily movements of 
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Bjerke, K.  1991.  An overview of the agriculture resources conservation 
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Campbell, B. H.  1990.  Factors affecting the nesting success of dusky Canada 
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______, and D. H. Johnson.  1979.  Mathematics and mallard management.  J. 
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______, A. B. Sargeant, and H. F. Duebbert.  1983.  Problems and potentials for 
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Dzubin, A., and J. B. Gollop.  1972.  Aspects of mallard breeding ecology in 
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Einarsen, A. S.  1956.  Determination of some predator species by field signs.  
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Gese, E. M., O. J. Rongstad, and W. R. Mytton.  1989.  Population dynamics of 
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Glup, S. S., and L. L. McDaniel.  1988.  Bullsnake predation on waterfowl nests 
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Greenwood, R. J.  1986.  Influence of striped skunk removal on upland duck nest	
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______, A. B. Sargeant, D. H. Johnson, L. M. Cowardin, and T. L. Shaffer.  1987.  
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Hanson, W. C., and L. L. Eberhardt.  1971.  A Columbia river Canada goose 
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Harrison, D. J.  1986.  Coyote dispersal, mortality, and spatial interactions 
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______, J. A. Bissonette, and J. A. Sherburne.  1989.  Spatial relationships 
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______, and J. R. Gilbert.  1985.  Denning ecology and movements of coyotes in 
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______, and J. A. Harrison.  1984.  Foods of adult coyotes and their known-aged 
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Higgins, K. F.  1977.  Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota.  
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______, L. M. Kirsch, H. F. Duebbert, A. T. Klett, J. T. Lokemoen, H. W. Miller, 
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Hill, D. A.  1984.  Clutch predation in relation to nest density in mallard and 
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Johnson, D. H.  1979.  Estimating nest success: the Mayfield method and an 
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______, and A. B. Sargeant.  1977.  Impact of red fox predation on the sex 
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______, ______, and R. J. Greenwood.  1989.  Importance of individual species 
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Johnson, M. A., T. C. Hinz, and T. L. Kuck.  1987.  Duck nest success and 
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Kantrud, H. A., G. L. Krapu, and G. A. Swanson.  1989.  Prairie basin wetlands 
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Keith, L. B.  1961.  A study of waterfowl ecology on small impoundments in 
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Klett, A. T., H. F. Duebbert, C. A. Faanes, and K. F. Higgins.  1986.  
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______, T. L. Shaffer, and D. H. Johnson.  1988.  Duck nest success in the 
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Krapu, G. L., A. T. Klett, and D. G. Jorde.  1983.  The effect of variable 
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Kruuk, H.  1964.  Predators and anti-predator behaviours of the black-headed 
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Major, J. T., and J. A. Sherburne.  1987.  Interspecific relationships of 
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Marshall, I. K.  1967.  The effects of high nesting densities on the clutch 
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Mayfield, H.  1961.  Nesting success calculated from exposure.  Wilson Bull.  
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Rearden, J. D.  1951.  Identification of waterfowl nest predators.  J. Wildl. 
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Ricklefs, R. E.  1969.  An analysis of nesting mortality in birds.  Smithson. 
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Sargeant, A. B.  1972.  Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl 
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______.  1982.  A case history of a dynamic resource--the red fox.  Pages 
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______, S. H. Allen, and J. O. Hastings.  1987.  Spatial relations between 
     sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota.  J. Wildl. Manage. 
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______, and P. M. Arnold.  1984.  Predator management for ducks on waterfowl 
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______, R. J. Greenwood, M. A. Sovada, and T. L. Shaffer.  1993.  Distribution 
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     production.  U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 194. 96pp.
	  
SAS Institute Inc.  1990.  SAS/STAT guide for personal computers.  Version 
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Smith, A. G.  1969.  Waterfowl-habitat relationships on the Lousana, Alberta, 
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Snedecore, G. W., and W. G. Cochran.  1980.  Statistical methods.  Iowa State 
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Sooter, C. A.  1946.  Habits of coyotes in destroying nests and eggs of 
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Sovada, M. A.  1993.  Differential effects of coyotes versus red foxes on duck 
     nest success and managed uplands.  Ph.D. Thesis, North Dakota State Univ., 
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Stewart, R. E.  1975.  Breeding birds of North Dakota.  Tri-Coll. Cent. Environ. 
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Stoudt, J. H.  1971.  Ecological factors affecting waterfowl production in the 
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Till, J. A., and F. F. Knowlton.  1983.  Efficacy of denning in alleviating 
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Tinbergen, N.  1965.  Von der vorratskammern des rotfuchses (Vulpes vulpes L.).  
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______.  1991.  Climatological data, annual summary, North Dakota. 100(13). 
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______.  1992.  Climatological data, annual summary, South Dakota.  95(15). 
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Van Bruggen, T.  1976.  The vascular plants of South Dakota.  Iowa State Univ. 
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Voigt, D. R., and W. E. Berg.  1987.  Coyote.  Pages 378-392 in M. Novak, J. A. 
     Baker, M. E. Obbard, and B. Malloch, eds. Wild furbearer management and 
     conservation in North America.  Ontario Trappers Assoc., Toronto. 1150pp.
	
______, and B. D. Earle.  1983.  Avoidance of coyotes by red fox families.  
     J. Wildl. Manage. 47:852-857.
	 
Weller, M. W.  1956.  A simple field candler for waterfowl eggs.  J. Wildl. 
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______.  1979.  Density and habitat relationships of blue-winged teal nesting 
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