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Demographic Response of Black Bears at Cold Lake,
Alberta, to the Removal of Adult Males


Funding for this project was provided by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center of the Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey (BRD). Administrative support was provided by the BRD Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit and the Department of Wildlife Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. J.D. Clark, D.L. Garshelis, D.H. Johnson, J.D. Nichols, A.B. Sargeant, T.L. Shaffer, and an anonymous referee reviewed and greatly improved drafts of this paper. We especially thank G.A. Kemp, the late B.F. Young, the Alberta Department of Energy and Natural Resources (Fish and Wildlife Division), the Research Committee of the Graduate School at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Gulf Canada Resources, Inc., for their roles in data collection.
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