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Do Wolves Affect White-Tailed Buck Harvest
In Northeastern Minnesota?

Literature Cited

Berg, W., and S. Benson.  1999.  Updated wolf population estimate for Minnesota, 
     1997-1998.  Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Report, Grand Rapids, 
     Minnesota, USA.

Frenzel, L. D.  1974.  Occurrence of moose in food of wolves as revealed by scat
     analyses: a review of North American studies.  Le Naturalist Canadien 101:

Fritts, S. H., and L. D. Mech.  1981.  Dynamics, movements, and feeding ecology
     of a newly-protected wolf population in northwestern Minnesota.  Wildlife 
     Monographs 80. 

Fuller, T. K.  1989.  Population dynamics of wolves in north-central Minnesota. 
     Wildlife Monographs 105.   

______.  1990.  Dynamics of a declining white-tailed deer population in north-
     central Minnesota.  Wildlife Monographs 110. 

______, W. E. Berg, G. L. Radde, M. S. Lenarz, and G. B. Joselyn.  1992.  A 
     history and current estimate of wolf distribution and numbers in Minnesota.  
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Hoskinson, R. L., and L. D. Mech.  1976.  White-tailed deer migration and its 
     role in wolf predation.  Journal of Wildlife Management 40:429-441.	

Keith, L. B.  1983.  Population dynamics of wolves.  Pages 66-77 in 
     L. N. Carbyn, editor. Wolves in Canada and Alaska: their status, biology 
     and management. Canadian Wildlife Service Report Series 45.  

Kolenosky, G. B.  1972.  Wolf predation on wintering deer in east-central 
     Ontario.  Journal of Wildlife Management 36:357-369.

Lenarz, M. S.  1997.  The white-tailed deer of Minnesota's forested zone: 
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     Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Mech, L. D.  1971.  Wolves, coyotes, and dogs.  Pages 19-22 in M. M. Nelson, 
     editor.  Proceedings of a symposium on white-tailed deer in Minnesota.  
     Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.  		

______.  1977.  Productivity, mortality and population trend of wolves in 
     northeastern Minnesota.  Journal of Mammalogy 58:559-574. 

______. 1984.  Predators and predation.  Pages 189-200 in L. K. Halls, editor.  
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     Washington, D.C., USA.  

______.  1986.  Wolf population in the central Superior National Forest, 1967-
     1985. U.S. Forest Service Research Paper NC-270.

______, and L. D. Frenzel Jr.  1971.  Ecological studies of the timber wolf in 
     northeastern Minnesota.  U.S. Forest Service Research Paper NC-52.

______, and P. D. Karns.  1977.  Role of the wolf in a deer decline
     in the Superior National Forest.  U.S. Forest Service Research Paper 

______, M. E. Nelson, and R. E. McRoberts.  1991.  Effects of maternal and 
     grandmaternal nutrition on deer mass and vulnerability to wolf predation.  
     Journal of Mammalogy 72:146-151.

Messier, F.  1985.  Solitary living and extraterritorial movements of wolves 
     in relation to social status and prey abundance.  Canadian Journal of 
     Zoology 63:239-245.

Michigan Department of Natural Resources.  1997.  Michigan gray wolf recovery
     and management plan.  Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, 
     Michigan, USA.

Nelson, M. E. and L. D. Mech.  1981.  Deer social organization and wolf 
     predation in northeastern Minnesota.  Wildlife Monographs 53.	

______.  1986a. Deer population in the central Superior National Forest, 1967-
     1985.  U.S. Forest Service Research Paper NC-271.

______.  1986b.  Mortality of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota.  
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______.  1991.  White-tailed deer movements and wolf predation risk. Canadian 
     Journal of Zoology 69:2696-2699. 

Ohmann, L. F. and R. R. Ream.  1969.  Vegetation studies in the BWCA - 
	a brief report on plant communities.  Naturalist 20:29-29.

Peek, J. M., D. L. Urich, and R. J. Mackie.  1976.  Moose habitat selection 
     and relationships to forest management in northeastern Minnesota.  
     Wildlife Monographs 48.   

Pimlott, D. H., J. A. Shannon, and G. B. Kolenosky.  1969.  The ecology of the 
     timber wolf in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Ontario Department of 
     Lands and Forests Research Report (Wildlife) 87.  		

Potvin, F., H. Jolicoeur, and J. Huot.  1988.  Wolf diet and prey selectivity 
     during two periods for deer in Quebec: decline versus expansion.  Canadian 
     Journal of Zoology 66:1274-1279. 

______, H. Jolicoeur, L. Breton, and R. Lemieux. 1992.  Evaluation of an
     experimental wolf reduction and its impact on deer in Papineau-Labelle 
     Reserve, Quebec.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:1595-1603. 

Route, B.  1998.  No easy answers: effects of wolf population expansion on 
     deer hunting in northern Minnesota.  International Wolf 8(3):19-21.

Statistix 4.1.  1994.  Analytical software, Tallahasee, Florida.

Stenlund, M. H.  1955.  A field study of the timber wolf (Canis lupus) in the 
     Superior National Forest, Minnesota.  Minnesota Department of Conservation 
     Technical Bulletin 4. 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.  1998.  Wisconsin Draft Wolf Recovery 
     Plan.  Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin.  

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