Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Berg, W., and S. Benson. 1999. Updated wolf population estimate for Minnesota, 1997-1998. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Report, Grand Rapids, Minnesota, USA. Frenzel, L. D. 1974. Occurrence of moose in food of wolves as revealed by scat analyses: a review of North American studies. Le Naturalist Canadien 101: 467-479. Fritts, S. H., and L. D. Mech. 1981. Dynamics, movements, and feeding ecology of a newly-protected wolf population in northwestern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 80. Fuller, T. K. 1989. Population dynamics of wolves in north-central Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 105. ______. 1990. Dynamics of a declining white-tailed deer population in north- central Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 110. ______, W. E. Berg, G. L. Radde, M. S. Lenarz, and G. B. Joselyn. 1992. A history and current estimate of wolf distribution and numbers in Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20:42-55. Hoskinson, R. L., and L. D. Mech. 1976. White-tailed deer migration and its role in wolf predation. Journal of Wildlife Management 40:429-441. Keith, L. B. 1983. Population dynamics of wolves. Pages 66-77 in L. N. Carbyn, editor. Wolves in Canada and Alaska: their status, biology and management. Canadian Wildlife Service Report Series 45. Kolenosky, G. B. 1972. Wolf predation on wintering deer in east-central Ontario. Journal of Wildlife Management 36:357-369. Lenarz, M. S. 1997. The white-tailed deer of Minnesota's forested zone: harvest, population trends, and modeling 1997. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. Mech, L. D. 1971. Wolves, coyotes, and dogs. Pages 19-22 in M. M. Nelson, editor. Proceedings of a symposium on white-tailed deer in Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. ______. 1977. Productivity, mortality and population trend of wolves in northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Mammalogy 58:559-574. ______. 1984. Predators and predation. Pages 189-200 in L. K. Halls, editor. White-tailed deer: ecology and management. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C., USA. ______. 1986. Wolf population in the central Superior National Forest, 1967- 1985. U.S. Forest Service Research Paper NC-270. ______, and L. D. Frenzel Jr. 1971. Ecological studies of the timber wolf in northeastern Minnesota. U.S. Forest Service Research Paper NC-52. ______, and P. D. Karns. 1977. Role of the wolf in a deer decline in the Superior National Forest. U.S. Forest Service Research Paper NC-148. ______, M. E. Nelson, and R. E. McRoberts. 1991. Effects of maternal and grandmaternal nutrition on deer mass and vulnerability to wolf predation. Journal of Mammalogy 72:146-151. Messier, F. 1985. Solitary living and extraterritorial movements of wolves in relation to social status and prey abundance. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:239-245. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 1997. Michigan gray wolf recovery and management plan. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, Michigan, USA. Nelson, M. E. and L. D. Mech. 1981. Deer social organization and wolf predation in northeastern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 53. ______. 1986a. Deer population in the central Superior National Forest, 1967- 1985. U.S. Forest Service Research Paper NC-271. ______. 1986b. Mortality of white-tailed deer in northeastern Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management 50:691-698. ______. 1991. White-tailed deer movements and wolf predation risk. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:2696-2699. Ohmann, L. F. and R. R. Ream. 1969. Vegetation studies in the BWCA - a brief report on plant communities. Naturalist 20:29-29. Peek, J. M., D. L. Urich, and R. J. Mackie. 1976. Moose habitat selection and relationships to forest management in northeastern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 48. Pimlott, D. H., J. A. Shannon, and G. B. Kolenosky. 1969. The ecology of the timber wolf in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Ontario Department of Lands and Forests Research Report (Wildlife) 87. Potvin, F., H. Jolicoeur, and J. Huot. 1988. Wolf diet and prey selectivity during two periods for deer in Quebec: decline versus expansion. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66:1274-1279. ______, H. Jolicoeur, L. Breton, and R. Lemieux. 1992. Evaluation of an experimental wolf reduction and its impact on deer in Papineau-Labelle Reserve, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Zoology 70:1595-1603. Route, B. 1998. No easy answers: effects of wolf population expansion on deer hunting in northern Minnesota. International Wolf 8(3):19-21. Statistix 4.1. 1994. Analytical software, Tallahasee, Florida. Stenlund, M. H. 1955. A field study of the timber wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Conservation Technical Bulletin 4. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 1998. Wisconsin Draft Wolf Recovery Plan. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin.