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Denning Behavior of Non-Gravid Wolves

Literature Cited


Bridges, R. S., R. DiBiase, D. D. Loundes, and P. C. Doherty.  1985. Prolactin 
     stimulation of maternal behavior in female rats.  Science 227:  782-784.

Cook, R. S.  1993.  Ecological issues on reintroducing wolves into Yellowstone 
     National Park.  Scientific Monograph NPS/NRYELL/NRSM-93/22.  U.S. Department 
     of the Interior, National Park Service.  328 pages.

Dixson, A. F., and L. George.  1982.  Prolactin and parental behaviour in a male 
     New World primate.  Nature 299:  551-553.

Fentress, J. C., and J. Ryon.  1982.  A long-term study of distributed pup feeding 
     in captive wolves.  Pages 238-260 in Wolves of the World.  Edited by F. H. 
     Harrington, and P. C. Paquet. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey.  

Gubernick, D. J., and R. J. Nelson.  1989.  Prolactin and paternal behavior in 
     the biparental California mouse, Peromyscus californicus.  Hormonal 
     Behaviour 23:  203-210.

Kreeger, T. J., U. S. Seal, Y. Cohen E. D. Plotka, and C. S. Asa.  1991. 
     Characterization of prolactin secretion in gray wolves (Canis lupus).  Canadian 
     Journal of Zoology 69:  1366-1374

Mech, L. D.  1988.  The Arctic Wolf:  Living with the pack.  Voyageur Press.  
     Stillwater, Minnesota.  128 pages.  

Mech, L. D.  1993.  Resistance of young wolf pups to inclement weather. Journal of 
     Mammalogy 74:  485-486.

Mech, L. D. 1995.  A ten-year history of the demography and productivity of an 
     arctic Wolf pack.  Arctic 48:  329-332.

Mech, L. D. in press.  Summer movements and behavior of a pup-free arctic wolf 
     pack.  Canadian Field Naturalist.

Mech, L. D., and U. S. Seal.  1987.  Premature reproductive activity in wild 
     wolves.  Journal of Mammalogy 68:  871-873.

Mech, L. D., and J. M. Packard.  1990.  Possible use of (Canis lupus) den over 
     several centuries.  Canadian Field Naturalist 104:  484-485.

Mech, L. D., T. J. Meier, and U. S. Seal.  1993.  Wolf nipple measurements as 
     indices of age and breeding season.  American  Midland Naturalist 129:  266-271. 

Numan, M.  1988.  Maternal behavior.  Pages 1569-1645 in The physiology of 
     reproduction.  Edited by E. Knobil, and J. Neill.  Raven Press,   Ltd., 
     New York.  

Seal, U. S., E. D. Plotka, J. M. Packard, and L. D. Mech.  1979. Endocrine 
     correlates of reproduction in the wolf.  Biology of Reproduction 21:    
     1057-1066.

Zarrow, M. X., R. Gandelman, and V. H. Denenberg.  1971.  Prolactin:  is it 
     essential hormone for maternal behavior in the mammal?  Hormonal Behaviour 
     2:  343-354. 

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