USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

Prolonged Winter Undernutrition and the Interpretation of Urinary Allantoin:Creatinine Ratios in White-tailed Deer


Antoniewicz, A.M., and Pisulewski, P.M. 1982. Measurement of endogenous 
      allantoin in sheep urine. J. Agric. Sci. 98:221-223.

Balcells, J.J., Guada, A., Castrillo, C., and Gasa, J. 1991. Urinary excretion
      of allantoin and allantoin precursors by sheep after different rates of
      purine infusion into the duodenum. J. Agric. Sci. 116:309-317.

Benjamin, M.M. 1981. Outline of veterinary clinical pathology. The Iowa State 
      University Press, Ames.

Blaxter, K.L., and Wood, A.W. 1951. The nutrition of the young Ayrshire calf. 
      3. The metabolism of the calf during starvation and subsequent 
      realimentation. Br. J. Nutr. 5:29-55.

Chen, X.B. 1989. Excretion of purine derivatives by sheep and cattle and its 
      use for the estimation of absorbed microbial protein. Ph.D. thesis, 
      University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Chen, X.B., Orskov, E.R., and Hovell, F.D.Deb. 1990a. Excretion of 
      purine derivatives by ruminants: endogenous excretion, differences 
      between cattle and sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 63:121-129.

Chen, X.B., Hovell, F.D.Deb., Orskov, E.R., and Brown, D.S. 1990b. Excretion of
      purine derivatives by ruminants: effect of exogenous nucleic acid supply 
      on purine derivative excretion by sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 63:131-142.

Chen, X.B., Franklin, M.F., Orskov, E.R., and Shand, W.J. 1992. The effect of 
      feed intake and body weight on purine derivative excretion and microbial
      protein supply in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1534-1542.

Chetal, U., Mehra, U.R., Nath, K., and Ranjhan, S.K. 1975. On the variation of
      urinary creatinine in buffalo calves and the effect of dietary protein 
      intake on urinary creatinine, creatinine-nitrogen, and creatinine 
      coefficiency. J. Agric. Sci. 84:1-5.

Coles, E.H. 1980. Veterinary clinical pathology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

Cool. N.L. 1992. Physiological indices of winter condition of wapiti and moose.
      M.S. thesis, The University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Davenport, L.S. 1939. Results of deer feeding experiments at Cusino, Michigan. 
      Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 4:268-274.

Davidson, I., and Henry, J.B. (Editors). 1969. Clinical diagnosis by laboratory
      methods. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

DeCalesta, D.S., Nagy, J.G., and Bailey, J.A. 1975. Starving and refeeding mule
      deer. J. Wildl. Manag. 39:663-669.

DeCalesta, D.S., Nagy, J.G., and Bailey, J.A. 1977. Experiments on starvation 
      and recovery of mule deer does. J. Wildl. Manag. 41:81-86.

DelGiudice, G.D. 1995. Assessing winter nutritional restriction of northern 
      deer with urine in snow: considerations, potential, and limitations. 
      Wildl. Soc. Bull. 23:687-693.

DelGiudice, G.D., Mech, L.D., and Seal, U.S. 1988. Comparison of chemical 
      analyses of deer bladder urine and urine collected from snow. Wildl. Soc. 
      Bull. 16:324-326.

DelGiudice, G.D., Mech, L.D., and Seal, U.S. 1989. Physiological assessment of
      deer populations by analysis of urine in snow. J. Wildl. Manag. 53:284-

DelGiudice, G.D., Mech, L.D., and Seal U.S. 1990. Effects of winter 
      undernutrition on body composition and physiological profiles of white- 
      tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manag. 54:539-550.

DelGiudice, G.D., Singer, F.J., and Seal, U.S. 1991. Physiological assessment 
      of winter nutritional deprivation in elk of Yellowstone National Park. J.
      Wildl. Manag. 55:653-664.

DelGiudice, G.D., Mech, L.D., Kunkel, K.E., Gese, E.M., and Seal, U.S. 1992. 
      Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of 
      free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota. Can. J. Zool. 70:

DelGiudice, G.D., Singer, F.J., Seal, U.S., and Bowser, G. 1994a. 
      Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional 
      deprivation. J. Wildl. Manag. 58:24-34.

DelGiudice, G.D.. Mech, L.D., and Seal, U.S. 1994b. Undernutrition and 
      serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter. J. 
      Wildl. Manag. 58:430-436.

DelGiudice, G.D., Asleson, M.A., Varner, L.W., and Hellgren, E.C. 1995. Twenty-
      four-hour urinary creatinine and urea nitrogen excretion in male white-
      tailed deer. Can. J. Zool. 73:493-501.

DelGiudice, G.D., Asleson, M.A., Varner, L.W, and Hellgren, E.C. 1997. Erratum:
      Twenty-four-hour urinary creatinine and urea nitrogen excretion in male 
      white-tailed deer. Can. J. Zool. 75:1736-1738.

DelGiudice, G.D., Kerr, K.D., Mech, L.D., Riggs, M.R., and Seal, U.S. 1998. 
      Urinary 3-methylhistidine and progressive winter undernutrition in white-
      tailed deer. Can. J. Zool. 76:2090-2095.

DelGiudice, G.D., Moen, R.A., Singer, F.J., and Riggs, M.R. 2001. Winter 
      nutritional restriction, simulated body condition, and mortality of 
      Yellowstone elk and bison before and after the fires of 1988. Wildl. 
      Monogr. In press.

Ditchkoff, S.S., and Servello, F.A. 1999. Sampling recommendations to assess 
      nutritional restriction in deer. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27:1004-1009.

Fujihara, T., Orskov, E.R., Reeds, P.J., and Kyle, D.J. 1987. The effect of 
      protein infusion on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in ruminants 
      nourished by intragastric nutrition. J. Agric. Sci. 109:7-12.

Fujihara, T., Matsui, T., and Harumoto, T. 1991. Urinary excretion of purine 
      derivatives and blood plasma level of allantoin in sheep and goats during
      fasting. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on 
      Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Herning, Denmark, 9-14 June 1991. 
      Edited by B.O. Eggum. National Institute of Animal Science, 
      Research Center Foulum, Herning, Denmark. European Association for Animal 
      Production. pp. 170-172.

Garrott, R.A., White, P.J., Vagnoni, D.B., and Heisey, D.M. 1996. Purine 
      derivatives in snow-urine as dietary index for free-ranging elk. J. 
      Wildl. Manag. 60:735-743.

Garrott, R.A., Cook, J.G., Berardinelli, J.G., White, P.J., Cherry. S., and 
      Vagnoni, D.B. 1997. Evaluation of the urinary allantoin:creatinine ratio
      as a nutritional index for elk. Can. J. Zool. 75:1519-1525.

Giesecke, D., Balsliemke, J., Sudekum, K.H., and Stangassinger, M. 1993. 
      Plasmaspiegel, Clearance sowie renale Ausscheidung von endogenen und 
      ruminalen Purinen beim Rind. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 70:180-189.

Giesecke, D., Ehrentreich, L., and Stangassinger, M. 1994. Mammary and renal
      excretion of purine metabolites in relation to energy intake and milk 
      yield in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:2376-2381.

Greenblatt, D.J., Ransil, B.J., Harmatz, J.S., Smith, T.W., Duhme, D.W., and 
      Koch-Weser, J. 1976. Variability of 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion
      by normal subjects. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 16:321-328.

Harder, J.D., and Kirkpatrick, R.L. 1994. Physiological methods in wildlife 
      research. In Research and management techniques for wildlife and 
      habitats. Edited by T.A. Bookhout. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, 
      Md. pp. 275-306.

Hobbs, N.T., Baker, D.L., Ellis. J.E., Swift, S.M., and Green, R.A. 1982. 
      Energy- and nitrogen-based estimates of elk winter-range carrying 
      capacity. J. Wildl. Manag. 46:12-21.

Hovell, F.D.Deb., MacLeod, N.A., and McDonald, I. 1983. The effect of changes
      in the amount of energy infused as volatile fatty acids on the nitrogen 
      retention and creatinine excretion of lambs wholly nourished by 
      intragastric infusion. Br. J. Nutr. 50:331-343.

Hovell, F.D.Deb., Orskov, E.R., Kyle, D.J., and MacLeod, N.A. 1987. 
      Undernutrition in sheep: nitrogen repletion by N-depleted sheep. Br. J. 
      Nutr. 57:77-88.

Jaffe, M. 1886. Über den Reiderschlag, welchen Pikrinsäure in normalen 
      Harn erzeugt and über neue Reaktion des Kreatinins. Z. Phys. Chem. 

Jiang, A., and Hudson, R.J. 1992. Estimating forage intake and energy 
      requirements of free-ranging wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Can. J. 
      Zool. 70:675-679.

Long, C.L., Birkhahn, R.H., Geiger, J.W., Betts, J.E., Schiller, W.R., and 
      Blakemore, W.S. 1981. Urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine: an 
      assessment of muscle protein catabolism in adult normal subjects and 
      during malnutrition, sepsis, and skeletal trauma. Metabolism, 30:765-776.

Maloiy, M.O., Kay, R.N.B., and Goodall, E.D. 1970. Digestion and nitrogen 
      metabolism in sheep and red deer given large or small amounts of water 
      and protein. Br. J. Nutr. 24:843-855.

Moen, A.N., and Severinghaus, C.W. 1981. The annual weight cycle and survival 
      of white-tailed deer in New York. N.Y. Fish Game J. 28:162-177.

Moen, R.A., and DelGiudice, G.D. 1997. Simulating nitrogen metabolism and 
      urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios in ruminants. J. Wildl. Manag. 

Neter, J., Wasserman, W., and Kutner, M.H. 1990. Applied linear statistical
      models. 3rd ed. Irwin Publishing, Boston, Mass.

Pils, A.C., Garrott, R.A., and Borkowski, J.J. 1999. Sampling and statistical 
      analysis of snow-urine allantoin:creatinine ratios. J. Wildl. Manag. 63:

Puchala, R., and Kulasek, G.W. 1991. Evaluation of allantoin as a marker for 
      microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of sheep. In Proceedings 
      of the Sixth International Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, 
      Herning, Denmark, 9-14 June 1991. Edited by B.O. Eggum. National 
      Institute of Animal Science, Research Center Foulum, Herning, Denmark. 
      European Association for Animal Production. pp. 89-91.

Puchala, R., Shelford, J.A., Barej, W., Kulasek, G.W., Pior, H., Von 
      Keyserlingk, M., and Makoni, N. 1993. Urinary excretion of pseudouridine 
      and purine metabolites in ruminants. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 69:

Robbins, C.T. 1983. Wildlife feed and nutrition. Academic Press, New York.

Rys, R., Antoniewicz, A., and Maciejewicz, J. 1975. Allantoin in urine as an 
      index of microbial protein in the rumen. In Tracer studies on non-
      protein nitrogen for ruminants. II. International Atomic Energy Agency,
      Vienna. pp. 95-98.

SAS Institute Inc. 1996. SAS/STAT software: changes and enhancements through 
      release 6.11. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N.C.

Seal, U.S., Verme, L.J., and Ozoga, J.J. 1981. Physiologic values. Tall Timbers
      Res. Stn. Misc. Publ. No. 7.

Severinghaus, C.W. 1981. Overwinter weight loss in white-tailed deer in New York. 
      N.Y. Fish Game J. 28:61-67.

Shils, M.E., and Young, V.R. (Editors). 1988. Modern nutrition in health 
      and disease. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.

Torbit, S.C., Carpenter, L.H., Swift, D.M., and Alldredge, A.W. 1985. 
      Differential loss of fat and protein by mule deer during winter. J. 
      Wildl. Manag. 49:80-85.

Ullrey, D.E., Youatt, W.G., Johnson, H.E., Fay, L.D., Schoepke, B.L., and 
      Magee, W.T. 1970. Digestible and metabolizable energy requirements for 
      winter maintenance of Michigan white-tailed deer does. J. Wildl. Manag. 

Vagnoni, D.B., Garrott, R.A., Cook, J.G., White, P.J., and Clayton, M.K. 1996.
      Urinary allantoin:creatinine ratios as a dietary index for elk. J. Wildl.
      Manag. 60:728-734.

Van Niekerk, B.D.H. 1962. Urinary creatinine: a study of the relation to body 
      composition and of factors influencing its rate of excretion and 
      decomposition. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.

Verbic, J., Chen, X.B., MacLeod, N.A., and Orskov, E.R. 1990. Excretion of 
      purine derivatives by ruminants: effect of microbial nucleic acid 
      infusion on purine derivative excretion by steers. J. Agric. Sci. 114:

Walker, D.M., and Faichney, G.J. 1964a. Nitrogen balance studies with 
      the milk-fed lamb. 1. Endogenous urinary nitrogen, metabolic faecal 
      nitrogen, and basal heat production. Br. J. Nutr. 18:187-200.

Walker, D.M., and Faichney, G.J. 1964b. Nitrogen balance studies with 
      the milk-fed lamb. 2. The partition of urinary nitrogen and sulphur. Br. 
      J. Nutr. 18:201-207.

Wallin, J.D. 1979. The kidney and the urine. In Review of physiological 
      chemistry. Edited by H.A. Harper, V.W. Rodwell, and P.A. Mayes. 
      Lange Medical Publishers, Los Altos, Calif. pp. 626-649.

Ware, J.H. 1985. Linear models for the analysis of longitudinal studies. Am. 
      Stat. 39:95-101.

White, P.J., Garrott, R.A., Vanderbilt White, C.A., and Sargeant, G.A. 1995. 
      Interpreting mean chemical ratios from simple random collections of snow-
      urine samples. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 23:705-710.

Wolfinger, R. 1993. Covariance structure selection in general linear mixed 
      models. Commun. Stat. Simul. 22:1079-1106.

Young, G.G., and Conway, C.F. 1942. On the estimation of allantoin by Rimini-
      Schryver reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 142:839-853.

Previous Section -- Acknowledgements
Return to Contents

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Saturday, 02-Feb-2013 05:44:43 EST
Sioux Falls, SD [sdww55]