Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Antoniewicz, A.M., and Pisulewski, P.M. 1982. Measurement of endogenous allantoin in sheep urine. J. Agric. Sci. 98:221-223. Balcells, J.J., Guada, A., Castrillo, C., and Gasa, J. 1991. Urinary excretion of allantoin and allantoin precursors by sheep after different rates of purine infusion into the duodenum. J. Agric. Sci. 116:309-317. Benjamin, M.M. 1981. Outline of veterinary clinical pathology. The Iowa State University Press, Ames. Blaxter, K.L., and Wood, A.W. 1951. The nutrition of the young Ayrshire calf. 3. The metabolism of the calf during starvation and subsequent realimentation. Br. J. Nutr. 5:29-55. Chen, X.B. 1989. Excretion of purine derivatives by sheep and cattle and its use for the estimation of absorbed microbial protein. Ph.D. thesis, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom. Chen, X.B., Orskov, E.R., and Hovell, F.D.Deb. 1990a. Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants: endogenous excretion, differences between cattle and sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 63:121-129. Chen, X.B., Hovell, F.D.Deb., Orskov, E.R., and Brown, D.S. 1990b. Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants: effect of exogenous nucleic acid supply on purine derivative excretion by sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 63:131-142. Chen, X.B., Franklin, M.F., Orskov, E.R., and Shand, W.J. 1992. The effect of feed intake and body weight on purine derivative excretion and microbial protein supply in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1534-1542. Chetal, U., Mehra, U.R., Nath, K., and Ranjhan, S.K. 1975. On the variation of urinary creatinine in buffalo calves and the effect of dietary protein intake on urinary creatinine, creatinine-nitrogen, and creatinine coefficiency. J. Agric. Sci. 84:1-5. Coles, E.H. 1980. Veterinary clinical pathology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. Cool. N.L. 1992. Physiological indices of winter condition of wapiti and moose. M.S. thesis, The University of Alberta, Edmonton. Davenport, L.S. 1939. Results of deer feeding experiments at Cusino, Michigan. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 4:268-274. Davidson, I., and Henry, J.B. (Editors). 1969. Clinical diagnosis by laboratory methods. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. DeCalesta, D.S., Nagy, J.G., and Bailey, J.A. 1975. Starving and refeeding mule deer. J. Wildl. Manag. 39:663-669. DeCalesta, D.S., Nagy, J.G., and Bailey, J.A. 1977. Experiments on starvation and recovery of mule deer does. J. Wildl. Manag. 41:81-86. DelGiudice, G.D. 1995. Assessing winter nutritional restriction of northern deer with urine in snow: considerations, potential, and limitations. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 23:687-693. DelGiudice, G.D., Mech, L.D., and Seal, U.S. 1988. Comparison of chemical analyses of deer bladder urine and urine collected from snow. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:324-326. DelGiudice, G.D., Mech, L.D., and Seal, U.S. 1989. Physiological assessment of deer populations by analysis of urine in snow. J. Wildl. Manag. 53:284- 291. DelGiudice, G.D., Mech, L.D., and Seal U.S. 1990. Effects of winter undernutrition on body composition and physiological profiles of white- tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manag. 54:539-550. DelGiudice, G.D., Singer, F.J., and Seal, U.S. 1991. Physiological assessment of winter nutritional deprivation in elk of Yellowstone National Park. J. Wildl. Manag. 55:653-664. DelGiudice, G.D., Mech, L.D., Kunkel, K.E., Gese, E.M., and Seal, U.S. 1992. Seasonal patterns of weight, hematology, and serum characteristics of free-ranging female white-tailed deer in Minnesota. Can. J. Zool. 70: 974-983. DelGiudice, G.D., Singer, F.J., Seal, U.S., and Bowser, G. 1994a. Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation. J. Wildl. Manag. 58:24-34. DelGiudice, G.D.. Mech, L.D., and Seal, U.S. 1994b. Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter. J. Wildl. Manag. 58:430-436. DelGiudice, G.D., Asleson, M.A., Varner, L.W., and Hellgren, E.C. 1995. Twenty- four-hour urinary creatinine and urea nitrogen excretion in male white- tailed deer. Can. J. Zool. 73:493-501. DelGiudice, G.D., Asleson, M.A., Varner, L.W, and Hellgren, E.C. 1997. Erratum: Twenty-four-hour urinary creatinine and urea nitrogen excretion in male white-tailed deer. Can. J. Zool. 75:1736-1738. DelGiudice, G.D., Kerr, K.D., Mech, L.D., Riggs, M.R., and Seal, U.S. 1998. Urinary 3-methylhistidine and progressive winter undernutrition in white- tailed deer. Can. J. Zool. 76:2090-2095. DelGiudice, G.D., Moen, R.A., Singer, F.J., and Riggs, M.R. 2001. Winter nutritional restriction, simulated body condition, and mortality of Yellowstone elk and bison before and after the fires of 1988. Wildl. Monogr. In press. Ditchkoff, S.S., and Servello, F.A. 1999. Sampling recommendations to assess nutritional restriction in deer. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27:1004-1009. Fujihara, T., Orskov, E.R., Reeds, P.J., and Kyle, D.J. 1987. The effect of protein infusion on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in ruminants nourished by intragastric nutrition. J. Agric. Sci. 109:7-12. Fujihara, T., Matsui, T., and Harumoto, T. 1991. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives and blood plasma level of allantoin in sheep and goats during fasting. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Herning, Denmark, 9-14 June 1991. Edited by B.O. Eggum. National Institute of Animal Science, Research Center Foulum, Herning, Denmark. European Association for Animal Production. pp. 170-172. Garrott, R.A., White, P.J., Vagnoni, D.B., and Heisey, D.M. 1996. Purine derivatives in snow-urine as dietary index for free-ranging elk. J. Wildl. Manag. 60:735-743. Garrott, R.A., Cook, J.G., Berardinelli, J.G., White, P.J., Cherry. S., and Vagnoni, D.B. 1997. Evaluation of the urinary allantoin:creatinine ratio as a nutritional index for elk. Can. J. Zool. 75:1519-1525. Giesecke, D., Balsliemke, J., Sudekum, K.H., and Stangassinger, M. 1993. Plasmaspiegel, Clearance sowie renale Ausscheidung von endogenen und ruminalen Purinen beim Rind. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 70:180-189. Giesecke, D., Ehrentreich, L., and Stangassinger, M. 1994. Mammary and renal excretion of purine metabolites in relation to energy intake and milk yield in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:2376-2381. Greenblatt, D.J., Ransil, B.J., Harmatz, J.S., Smith, T.W., Duhme, D.W., and Koch-Weser, J. 1976. Variability of 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion by normal subjects. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 16:321-328. Harder, J.D., and Kirkpatrick, R.L. 1994. Physiological methods in wildlife research. In Research and management techniques for wildlife and habitats. Edited by T.A. Bookhout. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, Md. pp. 275-306. Hobbs, N.T., Baker, D.L., Ellis. J.E., Swift, S.M., and Green, R.A. 1982. Energy- and nitrogen-based estimates of elk winter-range carrying capacity. J. Wildl. Manag. 46:12-21. Hovell, F.D.Deb., MacLeod, N.A., and McDonald, I. 1983. The effect of changes in the amount of energy infused as volatile fatty acids on the nitrogen retention and creatinine excretion of lambs wholly nourished by intragastric infusion. Br. J. Nutr. 50:331-343. Hovell, F.D.Deb., Orskov, E.R., Kyle, D.J., and MacLeod, N.A. 1987. Undernutrition in sheep: nitrogen repletion by N-depleted sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 57:77-88. Jaffe, M. 1886. Über den Reiderschlag, welchen Pikrinsäure in normalen Harn erzeugt and über neue Reaktion des Kreatinins. Z. Phys. Chem. 10:391-400. Jiang, A., and Hudson, R.J. 1992. Estimating forage intake and energy requirements of free-ranging wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Can. J. Zool. 70:675-679. Long, C.L., Birkhahn, R.H., Geiger, J.W., Betts, J.E., Schiller, W.R., and Blakemore, W.S. 1981. Urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine: an assessment of muscle protein catabolism in adult normal subjects and during malnutrition, sepsis, and skeletal trauma. Metabolism, 30:765-776. Maloiy, M.O., Kay, R.N.B., and Goodall, E.D. 1970. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism in sheep and red deer given large or small amounts of water and protein. Br. J. Nutr. 24:843-855. Moen, A.N., and Severinghaus, C.W. 1981. The annual weight cycle and survival of white-tailed deer in New York. N.Y. Fish Game J. 28:162-177. Moen, R.A., and DelGiudice, G.D. 1997. Simulating nitrogen metabolism and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine ratios in ruminants. J. Wildl. Manag. 61:881-894. Neter, J., Wasserman, W., and Kutner, M.H. 1990. Applied linear statistical models. 3rd ed. Irwin Publishing, Boston, Mass. Pils, A.C., Garrott, R.A., and Borkowski, J.J. 1999. Sampling and statistical analysis of snow-urine allantoin:creatinine ratios. J. Wildl. Manag. 63: 1118-1132. Puchala, R., and Kulasek, G.W. 1991. Evaluation of allantoin as a marker for microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of sheep. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Herning, Denmark, 9-14 June 1991. Edited by B.O. Eggum. National Institute of Animal Science, Research Center Foulum, Herning, Denmark. European Association for Animal Production. pp. 89-91. Puchala, R., Shelford, J.A., Barej, W., Kulasek, G.W., Pior, H., Von Keyserlingk, M., and Makoni, N. 1993. Urinary excretion of pseudouridine and purine metabolites in ruminants. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 69: 186-193. Robbins, C.T. 1983. Wildlife feed and nutrition. Academic Press, New York. Rys, R., Antoniewicz, A., and Maciejewicz, J. 1975. Allantoin in urine as an index of microbial protein in the rumen. In Tracer studies on non- protein nitrogen for ruminants. II. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. pp. 95-98. SAS Institute Inc. 1996. SAS/STAT software: changes and enhancements through release 6.11. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N.C. Seal, U.S., Verme, L.J., and Ozoga, J.J. 1981. Physiologic values. Tall Timbers Res. Stn. Misc. Publ. No. 7. Severinghaus, C.W. 1981. Overwinter weight loss in white-tailed deer in New York. N.Y. Fish Game J. 28:61-67. Shils, M.E., and Young, V.R. (Editors). 1988. Modern nutrition in health and disease. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. Torbit, S.C., Carpenter, L.H., Swift, D.M., and Alldredge, A.W. 1985. Differential loss of fat and protein by mule deer during winter. J. Wildl. Manag. 49:80-85. Ullrey, D.E., Youatt, W.G., Johnson, H.E., Fay, L.D., Schoepke, B.L., and Magee, W.T. 1970. Digestible and metabolizable energy requirements for winter maintenance of Michigan white-tailed deer does. J. Wildl. Manag. 34:863-869. Vagnoni, D.B., Garrott, R.A., Cook, J.G., White, P.J., and Clayton, M.K. 1996. Urinary allantoin:creatinine ratios as a dietary index for elk. J. Wildl. Manag. 60:728-734. Van Niekerk, B.D.H. 1962. Urinary creatinine: a study of the relation to body composition and of factors influencing its rate of excretion and decomposition. Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. Verbic, J., Chen, X.B., MacLeod, N.A., and Orskov, E.R. 1990. Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants: effect of microbial nucleic acid infusion on purine derivative excretion by steers. J. Agric. Sci. 114: 243-248. Walker, D.M., and Faichney, G.J. 1964a. Nitrogen balance studies with the milk-fed lamb. 1. Endogenous urinary nitrogen, metabolic faecal nitrogen, and basal heat production. Br. J. Nutr. 18:187-200. Walker, D.M., and Faichney, G.J. 1964b. Nitrogen balance studies with the milk-fed lamb. 2. The partition of urinary nitrogen and sulphur. Br. J. Nutr. 18:201-207. Wallin, J.D. 1979. The kidney and the urine. In Review of physiological chemistry. Edited by H.A. Harper, V.W. Rodwell, and P.A. Mayes. Lange Medical Publishers, Los Altos, Calif. pp. 626-649. Ware, J.H. 1985. Linear models for the analysis of longitudinal studies. Am. Stat. 39:95-101. White, P.J., Garrott, R.A., Vanderbilt White, C.A., and Sargeant, G.A. 1995. Interpreting mean chemical ratios from simple random collections of snow- urine samples. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 23:705-710. Wolfinger, R. 1993. Covariance structure selection in general linear mixed models. Commun. Stat. Simul. 22:1079-1106. Young, G.G., and Conway, C.F. 1942. On the estimation of allantoin by Rimini- Schryver reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 142:839-853.