Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
69. Ermacoff, N. 1969. Marsh and habitat Area. Calif. Dep. Fish Game, Game Manage. Leafl. 12. 11 pp.
Undesirable winter emergents are controlled by cultivation, winter flooding, and burning. Late April and May burns produce the best results and favor germination of volunteer barnyardgrass and smartweed. A slow, concentrated fire moving into the wind is preferred. Drip torches can start the fire in heavy stubble; liquid petroleum weed burners can be used where stubble is sparse. Cost to burn is about $3.70/ha, about one-half the cost of discing. Cattails are disced, shredded, or mowed after June when the plants are in bloom and the ground is dry. (If this operation is performed earlier, it should be repeated in July or August.) Cattail stalks are allowed to dry then are burned. Reflooding after early October when the cattails are dormant and maintenance of 30 cm of water for 4 months completes effective cattail control. [K-L-S]