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Fire in North American Wetland Ecosystems and Fire-Wildlife Relations: An Annotated Bibliography

Appendix A

The Literature on Fire Indexed in Wildlife Review
1935 through September 1987.

(Numbers 1-206)

Development of the Bibliography

Titles included in this supplemental bibliography have appeared in Wildlife Review 1935 September 1987 (numbers 1-206). [The last date for an item to enter Number 206 was 31 July 1987.] To obtain pertinent titles, Wildlife Abstracts (1935-51, 1952-55, 1956-60, 1961-70), which summarized volumes 1-140 of Wildlife Review, were searched manually. Citations from Wildlife Review volumes 141-206 were obtained by machine search of the records in the files of the Data Base Section of the Office of Information Transfer, which is responsible for compiling and publishing Wildlife Review and Wildlife Abstracts. The distribution of the 190,861 titles searched in this process was:

1935-51   10,000
1952-60   14,481
1961-70   24,440
1971-80   54,802
1981-87   87,138

This 1935-1987 bibliography is incomplete to the extent that some pertinent titles were not indexed in the early years of Wildlife Review because of their emphasis upon fire management, fire behavior, or fire suppression, topics not then viewed as related to wildlife per se. Notwithstanding, within the category of fire as it relates to wildlife, summarization of titles indexed in Wildlife Review does provide the most complete bibliography obtainable from a single source.

Each citation in this appendix has a unique identifying number which is keyed to the Author Index. Within each appendix citation is a reference to the issue of Wildlife Review in which the citation originally appeared. (Addresses of authors and other pertinent data may be found in the Wildlife Review citations.)

The appendix text was computer-generated with the software used to print Wildlife Review from a special file incorporating only the citations on fire since each citation had to be re-indexed for this bibliography. The citations are listed in subject categories that best describe the content of the texts as they relate to fire-wildlife relationships. Because of the limitations of the printing software, titles could only be entered once in the text of the bibliography, that is, each item could enter the subject categories only once. This presented an indexing problem because many titles in the bibliography addressed several of the subjects we chose as major topical areas for presentation. To facilitate use of the bibliography, we therefore developed and strictly followed a set of indexing rules in preparing the text. Each citation was, in effect, run through a hierarchical indexing "key" (Table A1). The first instance in which a fit was found with the key was used as the major subject heading for a given citation.

Several practical "rules" thus apply to the use of this bibliography. First, with reference to Table A1, note that any citation that addressed issues in refuges, parks, wilderness, and natural areas sorted out initially regardless of the content of the text. This category therefore should always be searched for pertinent titles in addition to whatever further subject matter category is selected for review. At the other extreme, the categories that addressed "types" of fires, controlled or wild, only contain citations that could not be indexed by categories 1 through 9 (Table A1). Thus, an attempt to locate all citations on either of these subjects cannot be very efficiently initiated with this literature compilation, but alternative sources, such as FIREBASE, or some of the commercially available data bases, would be the location of choice for such searches in any case.

Throughout, citations were preferentially sorted by wildlife species of major concern instead of habitat "type." Our expectation was that this approach would match current emphasis upon management of habitat for wildlife species instead of management of habitat per se. Unfortunately, with single entry of each citation, search of this bibliography for information on particular habitats is thus difficult. We, therefore, suggest additional search of the literature with specific geographic constraints when particular ecosystems are the major concern.

During preparation of drafts of the manuscript, several reviewers suggested expansion of the categories we used to sort the citations. This required re-coding and re-keying the entries several times as we developed finer distinctions among categories. To most efficiently accomplish these revisions, we successively changed codes within larger categories. Thus, the final bibliography, when sorted as per Table A1, mixed the sequence numbers which destroyed their utility as unique identifiers of each citation. We thought it best to maintain this capability, so we printed the citations by sequence number within subject matter category. Thus, the final text does not reflect the hierarchical organization of the indexing key. Nonetheless, one can easily access it by reference to the Subject Index for this Appendix. Since only 942 titles are included, the search for pertinent citations in any category is not an arduous task.

We have not attempted to summarize or analyze the data appearing in Appendix A. Nonetheless, managers concerned with fire management planning or fire effects evaluation should be able to scan the lists quickly for recent titles pertinent to their ecosystems or species of interest.

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