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Butterflies of Glacier National Park, Montana

Appendix


Annual species occurrences and habitat preferences of butterflies in Glacier National Park in the years 1987-1989. Presence-absence data are reported as frequency of presence for a total number of annual samples. The number of annual samples (left of solidus) and the number of sites sampled (right of solidus) are indicated in parentheses beneath each year. Each site was censused more than once, but not all sites were censused with an equal number of samples. An asterisk (*) denotes significant changes in occurrence between 1988 and 1989 at P < 0.05 using a G-test. A = Alpine, HM = hydric meadow, MM = mesic meadow, R = Riparian, T = transition between low elevation and alpine, W = Woodland, XM = xeric meadow. Note: Most taxa are listed by genus and species. Those taxa that are listed by subspecies have undergone taxonomic revisions since Kohler's (1980) list.
                 Number of samples in which species occurred 

                                     1987     1988     1989    Habitat type &
Species                             (90/58) (161/24) (167/24)  year observed1
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Parnassius clodius 1 1 0 A American apollo Parnassius phoebus* 18 33 17 A Small apollo Papilio machaon bairdii 0 0 0 Garth (1950) Artemisia swallowtail Papilio zelicaon* 0 5 22 MM, A Western swallowtail Papilio canadensis 0 1 5 MM, R Tiger swallowtail Papilio glaucus rutulus* 3 17 53 A, MM Tiger swallowtail Papilio multicaudata 0 0 0 - Two-tailed tiger swallowtail Papilio eurymedon* 0 6 24 MM, XM Pallid tiger swallowtail Pieris protodice 2 0 0 A, MM Checkered white Pieris callidice occidentalis 12 38 44 A, MM Peak white Pieris napi 4 15 20 A Sharp-veined white Pieris rapae 4 12 6 MM, A Cabbage butterfly (small white) Colias meadii 3 5 2 A Alpine orange Colias eurytheme* 27 6 52 MM, A Orange sulfur (alfalfa butterfly) Colias philodice* 10 7 46 MM Common sulfur Colias interior* 20 40 27 MM Pink-edged sulfur Colias occidentalis 3 0 0 XM, A Golden sulfur Colias pelidne 0 0 0 - Blueberry sulfur Colias nastes 1 3 1 A Arctic green sulfur Neophasia menapia 0 2 0 1988: W Pine white Anthocharis sara 0 3 3 T Western orange tip Euchloe ausonia ausonides 0 8 13 MM, T Dappled marble Harkenclenus titus 2 1 4 T Coral hairstreak Satyrium sylvinus 0 0 0 - Western willow hairstreak Satyrium saepium 0 1 0 1988: A, W Buckthorn hairstreak Callophrys sheridanii 0 4 0 1988: T Little green hairstreak Callophrys polios 0 0 1 1989: A Hoary elfin Callophrys augustus 0 0 1 T Brown elfin Callophyrs mossii 0 0 1 XM, A Stonecrop elfin Callophrys eryphon* 0 6 23 MM, XM Western pine elfin Callophrys spinetorum 0 0 1 HM Blue mistletoe hairstreak Lycaena phlaeas 0 1 1 MM, R Small copper Lycaena cupreus 2 3 0 A Lustrous copper Lycaena xanthoides 0 0 0 - Gray copper Lycaena heteronea 7 12 12 A, XM Blue copper Lycaena helloides 5 2 1 A Purplish copper Lycaena dorcas 2 0 0 HM, A Cinquefoil copper Lycaena mariposa* 15 16 3 XM Forest copper Lycaena hyllus 2 0 0 1987: XM Bronze copper Epidemia nivalis 6 3 1 A Lilac-edged copper Plebejus idas "argyrognomon"* 28 46 15 MM, XM Northern blue Plebejus saepiolus 16 32 36 MM Greenish clover blue Plebejus icariodes* 2 2 29 MM, XM Lupine blue Plebejus acmon* 4 7 0 XM, A Silver-studded blue Plebejus glandon 0 11 5 T, A Primrose blue Everes amyntula 3 5 3 MM Western tailed blue Euphilotes enoptes ancilla 0 1 0 T Dotted blue Glaucopsyche lygdamus 0 0 4 MM, XM Silvery blue Glaucopsyche piasus 0 1 0 A, T Arrowhead blue Celastrina argiolus ladon 0 3 1 MM Spring azure Limenitis arthemis 0 0 3 MM White admiral Limenitis weidemeyerii 2 3 0 MM Western admiral Limenitis lorquini* 11 15 2 XM Orange-tip admiral Vanessa atalanta 2 1 2 R Red admiral Vanessa cardui* 0 20 1 MM Painted lady Vanessa carye annabella 0 4 0 1988: A Western painted lady Nymphalis vau-album* 6 8 1 MM, W Comma tortoise shell Nymphalis milberti 23 36 26 MM, A Fire-rim tortoise shell Nymphalis antiopa 8 14 11 XM, MM Mourning cloak Nymphalis californica* 15 7 0 1987: A Western tortoise shell Polygonia gracilis zephyrus 1 4 3 MM, T Hoary comma Polygonia satyrus 6 7 3 MM Golden angelwing Polygonia faunus* 15 19 10 MM, XM, A Green comma Chlosyne gabbii damoetas 1 0 0 A Pearly checkerspot Chlosyne palla 6 12 16 XM, MM Creamy checkerspot Phyciodes tharos 13 24 32 XM, MM Pearl crescent Phyciodes campestris* 42 0 43 MM,A Field crescent Phyciodes mylitta 0 0 0 - Thistle crescent Euphydryas gillettii 3 3 9 MM, W Yellowstone checkerspot Euphydryas chalcedona colon 0 0 0 - Western checkerspot Euphydryas chalcedona anicia 28 30 26 XM,MM,A Western checkerspot Euphydryas editha 3 4 9 A Ridge checkerspot Boloria selene 6 6 12 MM Silver meadow fritillary Boloria epithore 6 15 18 MM, A Western meadow fritillary Boloria alberta 2 0 0 A Alberta alpine fritillary Boloria astarte 0 0 1 A Arctic ridge fritillary Boloria titania* 6 13 4 HM Purple bog fritillary Speyeria coronis 0 0 0 Garth(1935) Coronis fritillary Speyeria edwardsii 1 0 0 MM Green fritillary Speyeria zerene* 7 15 1 XM Zerene fritillary Speyeria callippe 0 0 0 - Callippe fritillary Speyeria egleis 0 2 3 HM, A Great basin fritillary Speyeria atlantis* 31 36 20 XM,MM Atlantis fritillary Speyeria hydaspe* 13 12 4 A Lavender fritillary Speyeria mormonia* 19 64 17 A, XM, MM Mormon fritillary Speyeria cybele 1 0 1 XM Great spangled fritillary Speyeria aphrodite 0 0 3 1989: MM Aphrodite fritillary Coenonympha tullia ampelos 0 0 0 - Ringlet Coenonympha tullia inornata 6 25 34 XM, MM Ringlet Cercyonis pegala 8 5 12 XM Wood nymph Cercyonis oetus 26 43 38 XM Small wood nymph Oeneis uhleri 0 2 0 A Rocky mountain arctic Oeneis chryxus* 0 7 18 T, A Brown arctic Oeneis alberta 0 O O - Prairie arctic Oeneis melissa O 0 0 - Mottled arctic Erebia epipsodea 4 25 40 XM Common alpine Danaus plexippus 0 0 0 1989: MM Monarch

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1The year observed by Garth is noted for historically known species not seen since 1950 or 1935. The first year observed is noted for species added to the park list as a result of this survey.


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