Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Plot 2, 8.68 ha in size, was surveyed only during 1977-82, after which the trail to it became difficult to navigate. It had been grazed or hayed during 1906-67, then left idle except for five prescribed burns. It contains all or portions of seven seasonal wetlands, about 0.9 ha in total. Kentucky bluegrass is abundant, and needle-and-thread, yarrow (Achillea lanulosa), fringed sage (Artemisia frigida), and prairie wild rose (Rosa arkansana) are common. Stands of wolfberry and silverberry also occur.
Plot 7, 6.07 ha in extent, was hayed during 1904-55. It had been plowed in 1956 for one year of crop production. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and possibly some tame grasses were planted in 1958, after which it was grazed or hayed until 1970. It has since been subjected to four prescribed burns. Six seasonal and two temporary wetlands, covering 1.1 ha, are included in the plot. Dominant upland plants are needle-and-thread, green needlegrass (Stipa viridula), alfalfa, Kentucky bluegrass, rigid goldenrod (Solidago rigida), and stiff sunflower. Patches of silverberry and wolfberry have increased during the study.
Plot 9 is also 6.07 ha. It consists of unbroken sod that had been hayed and probably grazed during 1908-65. It has been burned five times since then. Two small seasonal and one ephemeral wetland cover 0.2 ha. Dominant plant species are Kentucky bluegrass, needle-and-thread, yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis), white prairie aster (Aster ericoides), and stiff sunflower. Wolfberry occurs in several patches.
Plot 11, 4.86 ha in size, had been cropped during 1917-27 and from 1934 to about 1940. It then reverted to grass and was grazed through 1970. Since then, it has been burned four times. It contains one ephemeral and portions of two seasonal wetlands, totalling about 0.5 ha. The uplands are dominated by Kentucky bluegrass and, to a lesser extent, smooth brome (Bromus inermis).
Plot 16 is 6.07 ha in size. It was grazed from 1906 to 1968, after which it was treated with a total of six prescribed fires. Five seasonal wetlands and small portions of two seasonal to semipermanent wetlands lie within the plot, with a total area of about 0.6 ha. Common plants are Kentucky bluegrass, quackgrass (Agropyron repens), needle-and-thread, and little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), as well as wolfberry and silverberry.
Plot 18, also 6.07 ha in size, is unbroken prairie sod that had been grazed from 1906 to 1968. The plot was burned seven times between 1969 and 1990. In addition, it was intensively grazed by sheep during 1973 and 1974. The plot contains four small wetlands--one ephemeral, two temporary, and one seasonal--covering <0.1 ha. At the beginning of the surveys, the plot had several thickets of chokecherry and hawthorn (Crataegus chrysocarpa). The various treatments, as well as nest-searching with a cable-chain device, have reduced the thickets considerably. Other common plants include Kentucky bluegrass, blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and fringed sage.
Plots were measured and marked by use of compass and pacing. Surveyor's flags were placed at 40-m intervals on a grid throughout each plot to facilitate recording of bird locations.
In most years, one other observer and I conducted independent surveys and subsequently compared results. For consistency, I personally estimated the number of territories from the locations plotted on field maps.
The second category includes those species that use habitats enhanced by long-term protection from fire, specifically the woody vegetation that encroaches in unburned grassland. The most common species at Woodworth in this category are eastern kingbird, willow flycatcher, yellow warbler, common yellowthroat, clay-colored sparrow, and brown-headed cowbird. The red-winged blackbird also uses brushy vegetation, but at Woodworth relied more on wetland habitats.
In the third category are birds that avoid recently burned areas, but favor grassland with little or no woody vegetation. Several of these species are most common two to five years following a fire. These might be termed true grassland species. Included in this category are bobolink, western meadowlark, grasshopper sparrow, Baird's sparrow, and savannah sparrow.
Two species analyzed here did not fit neatly into any of the categories. The willet, although commonly seen in the uplands, uses mostly wetland habitat except for nesting. No evidence of a response to burning was detected. The sedge wren used upland habitats at Woodworth, but did so most often when long-term precipitation patterns resulted in luxuriant herbaceous growth. That species showed no response to grassland burning, except for a reduction immediately following a fire.
Acknowledgements, References, and Appendix