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Regional Landscape Ecosystems of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This working map/classification is the result of input from several organizations and many individuals. The Upper Great Lakes Biodiversity Committee initiated the development of a three-State classification. The North Central Forest Experiment Station (USDA Forest Service) funded the research to create this draft version of the map and classification. Clifford Germain and Francis Hole provided manuscripts of their Natural Divisions Map of Wisconsin as well as comments throughout the preparation of this draft. Dr. Hole's Soils of Wisconsin (1976) was an invaluable resource. Minnesota's Landscape Regions, by Tim Kratz and Gerry Jensen (1983), was also used extensively, as was Wright's (1972) geomorphological treatment of the State. Several soils studies were consulted in detail, including those of Anderson and Grigal (1984), Cummins and Grigal (1981), and the Minnesota Soil Atlas (University of Minnesota 1969, 1971, 1973, 1977, 1979, 1980a-c, 1981a-b). The Minnesota Natural Heritage Program staff provided considerable information from their data base and answered many questions. Ecological Classification System staff from the Chequamegon, Superior, Ottawa, Huron-Manistee, and Hiawatha National Forests provided copies of their ecological classifications that I have attempted to adequately incorporate into this working classification/map. The Regional Landscape Ecosystems of Michigan (Albert et al. 1986) was used extensively for the sections on Michigan. A recent climatic publication (Wendland et al. 1992) provided useful climatic data for the three-State area, as did climatic studies for Michigan (Eichenlaub et al. 1990) and Wisconsin (Wisconsin Statistical Reporting Service 1967). Numerous other sources are referenced in the text.

A large part of the credit for the project should go to Dr. Burton V. Barnes, who introduced the concepts of Ecosystem clasification to me and my fellow students at the University of Michigan. Dr. Barnes' work has been critical to the development of ecosystem classification in the Lake States. His contribution to the INTRODUCTION, his detailed editorial comments, and his continued classification of Michigan landscapes have greatly added to the quality of this publication.

The following people contributed to this draft by providing reprints, comments, and assistance in preparing the text or maps. Their input and assistance are greatly appreciated. I would especially like to express appreciation to Leah Minc, for her assistance with editing, restructuring of the entire manuscript, and map layout. Michael Austin and Teresa Leibfreid contributed long hours to the creation of the maps. And finally, the editorial staff of the North Central Forest Experiment Station, Lucy Burde, Mary Peterson, and Barb Winters molded the rough draft into a finished publication. Throughout the entire project, Tom Crow, the project leader from the North Central Forest Experiment Station, provided the insights and support needed to bring this publication to fruition.

Contributors and reviewers:

John Almendinger, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR), Natural Heritage Program
Roger C. Anderson, Ecologist, Illinois State University
Jeff Asfoor, Minnesota DNR, Division of Forestry (Planning)
John Attig, Glacial Geologist, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey
Michael Austin, GIS Mapping, Michigan Natural Features Inventory
Janet Ball, Ecological Classification System (ECS) Mapping and Soil Scientist, Hiawatha National Forest
Burton V. Barnes, Forest Ecologist, University of Michigan
Bill Botti, Silviculturalist, Michigan DNR
Kim Chapman, The Nature Conservancy, Minnesota Field Office
Lee Clayton, Glacial Geologist, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey
Patrick Comer, Ecologist, Michigan Natural Features Inventory
Carmen Converse, Minnesota DNR, Natural Heritage Program
Robert T. Coupland, Grassland Ecologist, University of Saskatchewan
Tom Crow, Project Leader, North Central Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service
Henk Dahlberg, Minnesota DNR, Division of Minerals
Robert Dana, Minnesota DNR, Natural Heritage Program
Margaret Davis, Ecologist, University of Minnesota
David Diamond, Coordinator, Texas Heritage Program
Hannah Dunevitz, Minnesota DNR, Natural Heritage Program
Eric Epstein, Wisconsin DNR, Endangered Resources, Natural Heritage Program
David Ewert, Director of Science and Stewardship, Michigan Field Office of The Nature Conservancy
Don Faber-Langendoen, Regional Ecologist, The Nature Conservancy
Clifford Germain, Wisconsin Natural Areas Program (retired)
David F. Grigal, Professor of Soil Science, University of Minnesota
Dan Hanson, Minnesota DNR, Division of Forestry (Soils)
Bryan C. Hargrave, Minnesota DNR, Division of Forestry (Soils)
Jay R. Harman, Climatologist, Michigan State University
James (Bud) Hart, Soil Scientist, Michigan State University
Bonnie Heidel, Ecologist, North Dakota Heritage Program
Randy Hoffman, Wisconsin DNR, Endangered Resources, Natural Heritage Program
Francis D. Hole, Soil Scientist, University of Wisconsin
David Hoppe, ECS and Soil Scientist, Nicolet National Forest
George Host, Forest Ecologist, Natural Resources Research Institute
James K. Jordan, ECS and Soil Scientist, Ottawa National Forest
Lenny Kempf, ECS and Soil Scientist, Chequamegon National Forest
Pam Naber Knox, State Climatologist, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey
J. D. Lehr, Minnesota DNR, Division of Minerals
Teresa Leibfreid, GIS Mapping, Michigan Natural Features Inventory
Barbara Leuelling, ECS and Soil Scientist, Superior National Forest
Fred Madison, State Soil Scientist, Wisconsin
Charamy Marcellus, Administrative Assistant, Michigan Natural Features Inventory
Jim Meeker, Wildlife Biologist, Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission
David Mickelson, Glacial Geologist, University of Wisconsin
Leah D. Minc, Anthropologist, University of Michigan
Jon R. Nelson, Minnesota DNR, Division of Forestry
Tim Nigh, Ecologist, Missouri Natural Heritage Inventory
Dave Ode, Ecologist, South Dakota Natural Heritage Program
Lewis F. Ohmann, Principal Ecologist (retired), North Central Forest Experiment Station
Garrett Ous, Clearwater County Land Commissioner, Minnesota
Eunice A. Padley, Soils and Landscape Ecologist, Hiawatha National Forest
Michael Penskar, Botanist, Michigan Natural Features Inventory
John Pearson, Ecologist, Iowa Heritage Program
Kirt Pregitzer, Forest Ecologist, Michigan State University
Mary Rabe, Zoologist, Michigan Natural Features Inventory
Robert E. Redman, Grassland Ecologist, University of Saskatchewan
Sue Ridge, Administrative Assistant, Michigan Natural Features Inventory
Walt Russell, Ecosystems Team, Eastern Region, USDA Forest Service
Kurt Rusterholz, Minnesota DNR, Natural Heritage Program
Nancy Sather, Minnesota DNR, Natural Heritage Program
Lyn Scrimger, Data Manager, Michigan Natural Features Inventory
John E. Schwegman, Ecologist, Illinois Heritage Program
Barbara Scudder, U.S. Geological Survey, Madison, Wisconsin
Dave Shadis, ECS, Chippewa National Forest
Terry Sharik, Forest Ecologist, Michigan Technological University
Forest Stearns, Forest Ecologist, North Central Forest Experiment Station
Philip Stuart, Forest Ecologist, University of Michigan
Wayne M. Wendland, Illinois State Climatologist
Keith Wendt, Minnesota DNR, Planning
Daniel S. Wovcha, Minnesota DNR, Natural Heritage Program
James Zandlo, Climatologist, Minnesota DNR
Dave Zumeta, Minnesota DNR, Division of Forestry
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