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Riparian Ecosystem Creation and Restoration:
A Literature Summary

Tables


Table 2. Some experimental field studies and smaller-scale case examples from the WCR Data Base involving various techniques (grouped by main technique) used to create or restore riparian ecosystems.

Technique(s) Location (source)
Planting
Cottonwood cuttings; irrigate; fertilizeLower Colorado River, border of Arizona and California (Anderson et al. 1984; Disano et al. 1984)
Various trees and shrubs; weed; irrigate; fertilize; use herbicidesFlood control channels, Santa Clara County, California (Goldner 1984)
Cottonwoods and willows at various depths; fence; control beaverRio Grande floodplain, south of Albuquerque, New Mexico (Swenson and Mullins 1985; Swenson 1988)
Various trees and shrubs; irrigate with wastewaterEscondido Creek, San Diego, California (LaRosa 1984)
Fencing
Fence onlyBig Creek , Rich County, Utah (Duff 1979)
Fence onlyRattlesnake Springs, south-central Washington (Rickard and Cushing 1982)
Plant trees and shrubs; slope banks; install gabions; riprapTexas Creek, Colorado (Prichard and Upham 1986)
Slope banks; riprap; seed grassesFifteenmile Creek, Wasco County, Oregon (Newton 1984)
Introduce beaverSeveral streams in southwestern Wyoming (Apple et al. 1984)
Install artificial redds; stock troutBone Draw, near Eden, Wyoming (Smith and Dunder 1984)
Landforming
Create rock sills in a high mountain wet meadowWillow Creek, California (Clay 1984)
Remove debris and dead trees blocking flow; slope banks; riprapBriar Creek, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina (Keller and Hoffman 1976)
Meander streams; slope banks; remove silt from channel; provide fish shelter; plant trees and shrubsSouth Fork Yuba River, Placer County, California (Warner 1965)
Create meanders, pools, and riffles; install deflectors, log structures, and bouldersThree streams on mined land in Illinois and Indiana (Thompson 1984)
Create ponds and marshes; grade slopes; transplant topsoil; seed grasses; transplant and plant trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants; transplant stumpsSouth Prong Alafia River tributaries, west- central Florida (Robertson et al. 1987)
Relocate stream; create ponds; plant shrubs and herbaceous plants; place boulders and cobbles in streambed and on bank; install drop structuresBeaver Creek, near Avon, Colorado (tupa et al. 1988)
Recontour channel; remove rocks and cobbles; plant shrubs and trees; seed grasses; grade slopes; install drop structures; transplant topsoilGold-mined section of Blue River, Breckenridge, Colorado (Roesser 1988)
Create impoundments in bottomland hardwoods and vary water levelsMississipi Delta, near Greenville, Mississippi (Broadfoot 1967)
Installing instream devices
Small rock dams; restore gravel beds; increase fish accessStream near Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Burgess 1985)
Boulders and snags; riprap; slope banks; plant trees and shrubsTongue River, Wyoming (Gore and Johnson 1979)
Check dams; grade slopes; transplant topsoil; fertilize; seed grasses; fenceAlkali Creek, west-central Colorado (Heede 1979)
Treating soil
Spread and disk-in limestone; fertilize; seed grasses; plant trees and shrubsSurface-mined land, Ollis Creek, Campbell County, Tennessee (Starnes et al. 1978)
Various trees; grade slopes; transplant topsoilSmall streams, marshes, and bottomland hardwood forests at Big Four Mine, west- central Florida (Sandrick and Crabill 1983)
Cover soil with mixture of overburden and clay or topsoil; fertilize; fence; plant trees and shrubsPhosphate-mined land, Sink Branch, central Florida (Robertson 1984)

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