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Riparian Ecosystem Creation and Restoration:
A Literature Summary

Tables


Table 1. Percentage of the 92 riparian ecosystem creation/restoration records in the WCR Data Base containing keywords. Records may contain multiple keywords in each field. (See text for further description of fields.)

Field Keyword Percent
USFWS.REGION1 (West Coast to Idaho)35.9
4 (Southeast)25.0
2 (Southcentral)20.7
6 (Great Plains to Utah)20.7
3 (Midwest)17.4
5 (Northeast)6.5
Many (applicable to all regions)5.4
7 (Alaska)2.2
STUDY.TYPETechnique45.7
Case40.2
Overview33.7
Comparative29.9
Program (or plan)20.7
OBJECTIVEGeneral54.3
Habitat (fish or wildlife)35.9
Hydro (includes flood control)20.6
Experiment (lab or field)16.3
Erosion13.0
Incidental12.0
Wquality (water quality)8.7
ACTIONPlant54.3
Lform (landforming)47.8
Seed32.6
Stabil (bank stabilizing)28.3
Hydro (altering flow)28.3
Soil (treating or adding)25.0
Spoil (using spoil materials)17.4
Contam (contaminated soil/water)15.2
Fert (fertilizing)15.2
Cut (mowing or clearing)12.0
Stock (stocking fish or beavers)8.7
Fire (burning)2.2
Biocide (herbicides/pesticides)2.2
WET.TYPEPO-FO (palustrine forested)69.6
PO-SS (palustrine scrub-shrub)64.1
R (river subsystem not stated)47.8
PO-EM, R-EM2 (emergent)46.7
R2 (lower perennial river)34.8
UB, US, SB (unvegetated surfaces)21.7
R3 (upper perennial river)14.1
R4 (intermittent stream)10.9
PO-AB, R-AB, (aquatic beds)8.7
Rl (tidal river)4.3
RESPONSEVegetation66.3
Hydro (hydrologic flow)23.9
Success22.8
Econ (economics, costs)21.7
Fish21.7
Ngbirds (nongame birds)16.3
Wqual (water quality)15.2
Soil (soil properties)15.2
Wfowl (waterfowl)14.1
Invert (aquatic invertebrates)14.1
Mammals14.1
Chem (soil or water chemistry)13.0
Shoreb (shorebirds)12.0
Rept (reptiles)6.5
Amphib (amphibians)4.3
Huse (human use, recreation)3.3

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