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Presettlement Wildlife and Habitat of Montana:
An Overview

List of Early Montana Naturalists


Name (lived)
Years in Montana
Specialty
Geographic Area

Adams, Robert (1846-1906)
1871-1875
plants
upper Yellowstone, Gallatin, Madison, Jefferson

Alden, James M.
1858-1861
artist
northwest MT boundary

Alderson, Mary L.
1889-1892
plants
Bozeman area

Allen, George N.
1871
plants
upper Yellowstone, Gallatin, Madison, Jefferson

Allen, Joel A. (1838-1921)
1873
birds, mammals
lower Yellowstone Musselshell Rs.

Anderson, Frederick W. (1866-1891)
1883-1888
plants
Great Falls Belt & Highwood Mts.

Audubon, John J.
artist
Missouri R., Ft. Union

Ayers, Horace B. (1856-)
forestry
Flathead, Lewis & Clark Forests

Bailey, Florence A.M. (1863-1948)
birds
Glacier & Yellowstone NPs

Bailey, Vernon O. (1864-1942)
mammals
Glacier & Yellowstone NPs

Baker, Horace B. (1889-)
snails

Ball, Carleton R. (1873-)
plants
Front Range

Blakiston, Thomas W.
1857-1858
birds
Flathead, Kootenai Rs. Mont./Canada border

Blankinship, Joseph W. (1862-1938)
1898-1905
plants
statewide

Bourgeau, Eugene (1813-1877)
1857-1861
plants
possibly northern Montana

Bodmer, Karl (1809-1893)
1833
artist
Missouri R.

Brandegee, Edward N. (1865-1942)
1892?-1935
plants
Lewis & Clark Co.

Burglehaus, Fred H. (1869-1929)
plants
Yellowstone NP

Burke, Joseph
1844-1845
plants
Yellowstone, Musselshell, Madison, Jefferson Rs.

Butler, Bertram T. (1872-)
1906-1907
plants
Glendive

Cameron, Evelyn
photography
Custer and Dawson Cos.

Cameron, Ewen
birds
Custer and Dawson Cos.

Canby, William M. (1831-1904)
1883
plants
Flathead R. Lewis & Clark Co.

Carleton, Mark A. (1866-1925)
1889
plants
Lewis & Clark Co.

Carpenter, William L. (-1898)
insects
Bighorn Mountains

Catlin (1796-1872)
1832
artist
Missouri R., Ft. Union

Clark, William (1770-1838)
1805-1806
natural history
Missouri, Yellowstone, Bitterroot Rs.

Comstock, Theodore S. (1849-1915)
1873
geology
Yellowstone NP

Conrad, Henry S. (1874-)
1924-1926
plants
Yellowstone NP

Cooke, Amy W.
1900-1903
plants
Gallatin Co.

Cooley, Robert A. (1873-)
1903-1931
insects
state

Cooper, James G. (1830-1902)
1853-1854, 1860
birds, plants
Missouri R.

Cope, Edward D. (1840-1897)
1874-1877
natural history

Coues, Elliott (1842-1899)
1874
birds, plants
Milk R.

Coulter, John M.
1871
plants
Yellowstone NP

Cowles, Henry C. (1869-1939)
1901
plants
Flathead, McDonald Ls

Culbertson, Thaddeus A. (-1850)
-1850
natural history
Missouri R.

Dawson, George M. (1849-1901)
1874
Geology, natural history
Milk R.

Dieck, George
1888
plants
Deer Lodge

Douglas, Earl (1862-1931)
1897-1900
paleontologist
western Montana

Eggleston, Willard W. (1863-1935)
plants

Elrod, Morton J. (1863-)
zoology, plants
Flathead L., Glacier NP.

Evermann, Barton W. (1853-1932)
fishes
western Montana

Fitch, Laura A.
1892
plants
Sheridan, Virginia City

Fitzpatrick, Thomas J. (1868-)
1902
plants
Flathead L.

Geyer, Charles A. (1809-1853)
1843
plants
Bitterroot, Flathead, Clark's Fork Rs.

Gibbs, William
1884
birds
Helena

Gooding, Leslie N. (1880-)
1899
plants
Yellowstone NP.

Griffiths, David (1867-1935)
1898, 1900
plants
Billings, Red Lodge, Missoula

Grinnell, George B. (1849-1938)
1876
naturalist
central Montana, Yellowstone NP

Harris, Joseph S.
1857-1861
naturalist
northwest MT boundary

Harris, Wilson
1901
plants
Missoula, Flathead Lake

Havard, Valery (1846-1927)
1877, 1879
plants
Yellowstone, Musselshell, Missouri, Milk Rs.

Hayden, Ferdinand V. (1829-1887)
1853-54, 1855-57, 1871-72
geology, plants
Yellowstone, Bighorn, Powder, Yellowstone NP

Hector, James (1834-1907)
1857
birds, natural history
Montana/Canada border

Heller, Edmund (1875-1939)
1921
mammals
Yellowstone NP

Henshall, Hester S. (1898-1903)
plants, artist
Bozeman, Bridger Mts.

Henshall, James A. (1844-1925)
1896-1909
fishes
Bozeman

Hilgard, Eugene W. (1833-1916)
1880-1883
soils
northern Montana

Hoffman, Walter J.
birds
Flathead Reservation

Hornaday, William T. (1854-1937)
1886
mammals
Miles City, Jordan

Howard, Winslow J.
1866
plants
western Montana

Jackson, William H. (1843-1942)
1871
photographer
Yellowstone NP

Jennings, Herbert S. (1868-1947)
1897
plants
Bozeman

Jones, Burle J.
1900-1903
plants
Bozeman

Jones, William A. (1841-)
1873
engineer
Yellowstone NP, Fort Ellis

Jones, Wyatt W. (1879-)
1900-1903
plants
Bozeman

Jordan, David S. (1851-1931)
fishes
Yellowstone NP

Kelsey, Francis D. (1849-1905)
1885-1892
plants
western Montana

Kendall, William C. (1861-1939)
fishes
Yellowstone NP

Kennedy, Irene M.
1884-1900
plants
Great Falls, Belt, Flathead L.

Kennerly, C.B.R.
1857-1861
naturalist
northwest MT boundary

Kirkwood, Joseph E. (1872-1928)
1909-1928
ecologist
western Montana

Koch, Peter (1844-1917)
1869-1917
natural history
Missouri R., Bozeman, Cooke City

Koch, Elers
forestry
western Montana

Langford, Nathaniel P. (1832-1911)
natural history
Yellowstone NP

Lehman, Arthur
1904
plants
Flathead L., Mission Mts.

Leiberg, John B. (1853-1913)
forestry
n. Idaho, w. Montana

Lewis, Meriwether (1774-1809)
1805-1806
natural history
Missouri, Jefferson, Bitterroot Rs.

Light, J.E.
1892
plants
Custer Co.

Lord, John K. (1818-1872)
1858-1861
ornithologist
northwest Montana boundary

Ludlow, William (1843-1901)
1875
engineer
Yellowstone NP

Lyall, David (1817-1895)
1858-1861
plants
northwest Montana boundary

MacDougal, Daniel T. (1865-)
1892
plants
Clark Fork R. Flathead L. Glendive

Marcy, Oliver (1820-1899)
1866
plants
Bitterroot Mts., Fort Benton

Mathews, A.E.
1860s
artist
Missouri River

Matthes, Francois E. (1874-1948)
geology
Glacier NP

Maximilian, Alexander P. (1782-1867)
1832-1834
natural history
Missouri River

Mearns, Edgar A. (1856-1916)
1889, 1902
plants
Yellowstone NP

Merriam, Clinton H. (1855-1942)
1872
natural history
Yellowstone NP

Milner, James W. (1841-1879)
fishes

Muenscher, Walter C. (1891-)
1915, 1916
plants

Murie, Olaus J. (1889-1963)
natural history
Yellowstone NP

Muttkowski, Richard A. (1887-)
insects
Yellowstone NP

Nelson, Aven (1859-)
1899
plants
Yellowstone NP, Montana

Newberry, John S. (1822-1892)
1884
paleontology
northern Montana

Norton, Gertrude P.
1909
plants
Flathead L. Glacier NP

Notestein, F.N.
1890-1895
plants
Deer Lodge

Olson, Olaf M.
1904
plants
Yellowstone NP

Osborn, Henry F. (1857-1935)
1906
paleontologist

Packard, Alpheus S. (1839-1905)
insects

Palliser, John (1807-1887)
1847, 1857-1858
natural history
Yellowstone R. northern Montana

Peale, Albert C. (1849-1914)
1871-1872
geology
Yellowstone NP

Pearsall, John
1858-1862
natural history
Fort Benton, Helena, western Mont.

Roosevelt, Theodore (1858-1919)
1903
natural history
Yellowstone NP

Russell, E.C.
1884
birds
Whitehall

Rydberg, Per A. (1860-1931)
1896, 1897,
plants
southwest & central Montana

Sandberg, John H. (1849-1917)
1892
plants
Clark Fork R. Glendive

Saunders, Aretas A. (1884-)
1908-1915
birds
southwest Montana

Scheuber, Emma W.
1888-1892
plants
Deer Lodge Co., Park Co.

Scribner, Frank L. (1851-1938)
1883
plants
Lima, Dillon, Helena, Bozeman

Seymour, Arthur B. (1859-1933)
plants
Billings, Livingston, Bozeman Helena

Shaw, William T. (1873-)
1892
plants
Deer Lodge , Bozeman

Shear, Cornelius L. (1865-)
plants
Montana

Skinner, Milton P. (1879-)
natural history
Yellowstone NP

Smet, Pierre Jean De (1801-1873)
various dates
natural history
various locations

Smith, Ernest C. (1864-)
1904
plants
Yellowstone NP

Snyder, Arthur J.
1897
insects

Spragg, Frank A.
1900-1901
plants
Fergus Co.

Standley, Paul C. (1884-)
plants
Glacier NP

Suckley, George (1830-1869)
1853
birds
central & western Montana

Suksdorf, Wilhelm N. (1850-1932)
1889
plants
Park City, Big Timber, Bozeman

Swallow, George C. (1817-1899)
1867-1870
geology
western Montana

Thompson, David (1770-1857)
1808-1811
natural history
Clark Fork, Kootenai Rs.

Tilden, Josephine E.
1896
plants
Yellowstone NP

Traphagen, Frank W. (1861-1941)
1888-1892
plants
Deer Lodge

Tweedy, Frank (1854-1937)
1881-1891
plants
Yellowstone NP, s. & sw Mont.

Umbach, Levi M. (1853-1918)
1901-1903
plants
L. MacDonald, Big Fork

Vogel, Jacob
1900-1903
plants
Gallatin Co.

Watson, Sereno (1826-1892)
1880
forestry
western Montana

Whitford, Harry N. (1872-1941)
1902
forestry
western Montana

Wilcox, Earley V. (1869-)
1896-1899
plants
Absaroka Mts.

Wilhelm, Friederich P. (1797-1860)
1830
natural history
Missouri, Yellowstone Rivers

Williams, Robert S. (1859-1945)
1880-1899
plants/birds
Teton , Cascade Cos. Belt, Highwood Mts.

Williams, Thomas A. (1865-1900)
1898
plants
Billings, Red Lodge, Missoula

Willis, Bailey (1857-1949)
geology
Glacier NP


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