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Presettlement Wildlife and Habitat of Montana:
An Overview

Annotation Of Expeditions And Individuals Recording Natural History Notes

Raynolds Expedition, 1859-1860:

Following recommendations of Warren's report, the U.S. Army launched another expedition in 1859 to explore the upper Yellowstone. This expedition was headed by William F. Raynolds and he appointed Hayden as his surgeon/naturalist. This turned into a two year expedition which explored large areas of southern Montana, northwestern Wyoming, and even the upper Missouri River (Figure 16). Again, Hayden did a credible job collecting specimens and recording natural history information. It was on this expedition that mountain plovers were first collected from Montana - one at the mouth of the Smith River, and another near the mouth of Otter Creek (now Sweetgrass Creek) near Big Timber.

Hayden, F.V.  1862.  On the geology and natural history of the upper 
     Missouri.  Trans. of the Amer. Philosophical Society new series 

Hayden, F.V.  1869.  Geographical report of the exploration of the 
     Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers under the direction of Captain W.F. 
     Raynolds, Corps of Engineers, 1859-60.  U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 
     Washington DC.

McFarling, L.  1955.  Exploring the northern plains, 1804-1876.  Caxton, 
     Caldwell, ID.

Raynolds, W.F.  1868.  Report on the exploration of the Yellowstone and 
     Missouri Rivers in 1859-1860.  Senate Executive Document 77, 40th 
     Congress 2nd Sess. 1317.  U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC. 174 

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