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Presettlement Wildlife and Habitat of Montana:
An Overview

Annotation Of Expeditions And Individuals Recording Natural History Notes

The Northwest Boundary Survey, 1857-1861:

This was a joint American/British survey of the U.S. and Canadian border from the years 1857-1861. This expedition was well funded and staffed with excellent naturalists. The American portion of the expedition was headed by Archibald Campbell and his naturalists were Joseph S. Harris and Dr. C.B.R. Kennerly. James Madison Alden, an artist, accompanied the expedition. Through unfortunate circumstances, nearly all documentation of the American portion of the survey was lost except for some paintings by Alden. The results of the British portion of the survey were also misplaced for nearly 30 years but were finally found at the Royal Observatory library in England. The British expedition was headed by John Summerfield Hawkins and serving under him as naturalists were the botanist, David Lyall, and ornithologist, John K. Lord. These latter two men kept detailed records of the plants and animals of this region and assembled valuable collections. The expedition followed the U.S.-Canadian border, cutting a 40-foot wide path (see Goetzmann for photo), through the forest from the Pacific to the Continental Divide in what is now Glacier National Park (Figure 17).

Baker, M. 1900.  Survey of the northwestern boundary of the United 
     States,  1857-1861.  Geological Survey Bulletin No. 174. U.S. Dept. 
     of Interior, Washington, DC. 

Deutsch, H.J.  1962.  A contemporary report on the 49 degrees boundary 	
     survey.  Pacific Northwest Quarterly 53:17-33.

Goetzmann, W.H. 1959.  Army exploration in the American west 1803-1863.  
     Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT.

Klotz, O.  1917.  The history of the forty-ninth parallel survey west of 
     the Rocky Mountains.  Geographical Review 3:383-387.

Lord, J.K.  1866.  The naturalist in Vancouver Island and British 
     Columbia.  2 vols.  Richard Bentley, London.

Lord, J.K.  1876.  At home in the wilderness: What to do there and how to 
     do it: A handbook for travellers and emigrants.  Hardwicke and Rogue, 

Lyall, D.  1863.  Account of the botanical collections made by David 
     Lyall, M.D., R.N., F.L.S., Surgeon and Naturalist to the North American
     Boundary Commission.  Journal of the Linnaean Society of London 

Mitten, W.  1864.  The bryologia of the Survey of the 49th parallel of 
     latitude.  Jour. Linnaean Soc. 8:13-55.

Stanley, G.F., ed.  1970.  Mapping the frontier: Charles Wilson's diary of 
     the survey of the 49th parallel 1858-1862, while secretary of the 
     British Boundary Commission.  Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle.

Stenzel, F. 1975.  James M. Alden: Yankee artist of the Pacific Coast, 
     1854-1860.  Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, TX.

Thompson, L.S.  1985.  Montana's Explorers: The pioneer naturalists.  The 
     Montana Magazine, Helena.

Previous Section -- British North American Expedition, 1857-1860
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