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Presettlement Wildlife and Habitat of Montana:
An Overview

Presettlement Habitat and Wildlife Literature

Section 4.  A listing of books, papers, and documents pertaining to presettlement habitat and wildlife of Montana and adjacent lands.

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Abbott, G.A.  1906.  Up the Yellowstone on a Pinto.  Condor 8:151-152

Able, A.H.  1921.  Trudeau's description of the Upper Missouri.  Mississippi
     Valley Historical Review.  VIII.

Able, A.H.  ed.  Tabeaus' narrative of Loisel's expedition to the upper 
     Missouri.  Norman, OK, Univ. of Oklahoma Press.  [Tabeaus' journal 
     from June 1803-May 1805 details his travels to Mandan and Arikaras 
     Villages.  He did not reach Montana but journal has natural history 

Able, A.H.  1932.  Chardon's journal at Ft. Clark: 1834-1839.  S. Dakota 
     Dept. Hist. Pierre. 

Adams, A.B.  1966.  John James Audubon: A biography.  G.P.  Putnam's Sons, 
     New York.

Albright, G.L.  1921.  Official explorations for Pacific railroads, 
     1853-1855.  Univ. of California Press, Berkeley.

Allen, J.A.  1871.  The fauna of the prairies.  Amer. Nat. 5:4-9. 

Allen, J.A.  1873.  Crows and ravens.  Amer. Nat. 7:743-744.

Allen, J.A.  1873.  The Missouri Skylark.  Amer. Nat. 7:745.

Allen, J.A.  1874.  Notes on the natural history of portions of the Dakota 
     and Montana Territories, being the substance of a report to the 
     Secretary of War on the collections made by the North Pacific 
     Railroad Expedition of 1873, Gen. D.S. Stanley, Commander.  Birds.  
     Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 27:3-68. 

Allen, J.A.  1876.  The American bisons, living and extinct.  Memoirs of 
     Comparative Zoology, at Harvard College, Cambridge, MA. Vol.4, No. 10. 
Allen, J.A.  1876.  Breeding of the Canada goose in trees.  Bull. Nuttall 
     Orn. Club. 1:50.

Allen, J.A.  1892.  The geographic distribution of North American Mammals. 
     Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. History 4:199-243.

Allen, J.A.  1902.  Biography of J.G. Cooper.  Auk 19:421-422.  

Anderson, E.S., S.C. Forrest, T.W. Clark, and L. Richardson.  1986.
     Paleobiology, Biogeography, and systematics of the black-footed ferret,
     Mustela nigripes (Audubon and Bachman) 1851.  in The Black-footed 
     Ferret.  Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs.  Vol 8:11-62.  [Contains 
     information of early records of ferrets in Montana.] 

Anderson, F.W.  1889.  Pastoral resources of Montana.  Rep. Com. Agr. 
     1888:311-324.  Washington, DC.

Anthony, A.W.  1896.  A new subspecies of the genus Dryobates.  Auk 

Atkinson, H. 1826.  Expedition up the Missouri 1825.  19th Cong. 1st Sess. 
     House Doc. 117, Washington, DC.

Audubon, J.J.  1831-1839.  Ornithological biography.  5 vols.  A. Black, 

Audubon, J.J.  1826-1838.  Birds of America.  7 vols.  Lizars, and London: 
     Havell, Edinburgh. 

Audubon, M., ed.  1897.  Audubon and his journals, with zoological and 
     other notes by Elliott Coues.  2 vols.  Charles Scribner's Sons, New 

Audubon, J.J. and J. Bachman.  1845-1854.  The viviparous quadrupeds of 
     North America.  3 vols.  New York: V.G. Audubon. 

Ayers, H.B.  1900.  Flathead Forest Reserve.  1st Ann. Rep. U.S. Geol. 
     Surv. 5:245-316.  Washington, DC.

Ayers, H.B.  1901.  Lewis and Clark Forest Reserve, Montana.  21st Ann. 
     Rep., Part 5.  U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey; 27-80.  
     Washington, DC. 
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Bailey, B.  1913.  Some winter notes from the Bitterroot Valley, Montana.  
     Condor 15:94.

Bailey, B. 1913.  Some spring notes from the Bitterroot Valley, Montana.  
     Condor 15:184.

Bailey, V. 1887.  Report on some of the results of a trip through parts of 
     Minnesota and Dakota.  Rpt. Comm. Agr. [U.S.] pp. 426-454.

Bailey, V.  1926.  A biological survey of North Dakota.  USDA Bur. Biol. 
     Surv. North American Fauna, 49:1-226.  [Despite the late publication 
     date, Bailey has assembled numerous observations of wildlife dating 
     to presettlement times.  He provides considerable detail of the 
     current and past wildlife situation in western North Dakota.]

Bailey, V.,  W.B. Bell, and M.A. Brannon.  1914.  Preliminary report on 
     the mammals of North Dakota.  N.D. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. 3. 20 pp.

Bailey, V. and Bailey, F.M.  1918.  Wild animals of Glacier National 
     Park.  U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC. 210 pp. 

Bailey, V.O.  1930.  Animal life of Yellowstone National Park.  Thomas.

Baird, S.F.  1851.  Introduction to Appendix to Culbertson's Journal.  5th 
     Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst.  1850, p. 133. [reprinted in McDermont 

Baird, S.F.  1851.  Report on American explorations for the years 1853 and 
     1854.  in Smith. Inst. Ann. Rept. Vol. 9:79-97.  [First in a 
     series of annual reports of ongoing U.S. explorations, continued in 
     V. 10:42-47, V. 11:48-52, V. 12:46-48, V. 13:50-52, V. 14:63-68, V. 
     15:66-72, V. 16:58-61, V. 18:52-56.]

Baird, A.B.  1857.  Mammals (Part 1), in Reports of explorations 
     and surveys ....for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the
     Pacific Ocean. Vol. 8. 757 pp.

Baird, S.F., J. Cassin and G.N. Lawrence.  1858.  Reports of explorations 
     and surveys to ascertain the most practicable and economical route 
     for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.  
     Birds, Vol 9., A.O.P. Nicholson, Washington, DC.  1005 pp.

Baird, S.F.  1874.  Annual record for science and industry for 1873.  
     [Contains itinerary of the Jones Exp. to YNP.]

Baird, S.F.  1874.  A history of North American Birds.  Land Birds.  Vols. 
     I-III.  [Contains the original description of Cyanocitta stelleri 
     annectens from the vicinity of Missoula.]

Bakeless, J.E.  1947.  Lewis and Clark: Partners in Discovery.  Morrow, 
     New York 

Baker, M. 1900.  Survey of the northwestern boundary of the United States, 
     1857-1861.  Geological Survey Bulletin No. 174. U.S. Dept. of 
     Interior, Washington, DC. 

Bangs, O.  1900.  A review of three-toed woodpeckers of North America.  
     Auk 17:126-142.

Barber, L. 1980.  The heyday of natural history: 1820-1870.  Doubleday, 
     Garden City, N.Y.  

Barnes, W.C.  1912.  Report on the elk using the ranges of the national 
     forests surrounding the Yellowstone National Park.  U.S. Forest 
     Service Spec. Rept.  71 pp.

Barnett, L.  1972.  The buffalo bone commerce on the northern plains.  
     North Dakota History, XXXIX winter.

Bartlett, R.A.  1962.  Great surveys of the American West.  Oklahoma Univ. 
     Press, Norman.

Bartlett, R.A. and W.H. Goetzmann.  1982.  Exploring the American west, 
     1803-1879.  U.S.D.I. National Park Service Handbook 116. U.S. Govt. 
     Print. Off., Washington, DC.

Barlow, J.W. and D.P. Heap.  1872.  Report of a reconnaissance in Wyoming 
     and Montana Territories, 1871.  Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC.  
     43 pp.

Beckes, M.R. and J.D. Keyser.  1983.  The prehistory of the Custer 
     National Forest: An Overview. Custer National Forest, Billings, MT. 

Bek, W.G.  1941.  First journey to North America in the years 1822 to 
     1824, by Paul, Prince of Wurttemberg.  South Dakota Historical 
     Collections.  Vol. 19.  South Dakota Historical Soc., Pierre.

Beckwourth, J.P.  1972.  The life and adventures of James P. Beckwourth; 
     as told to Thomas D. Bonner.  ed. D.R. Oswald.  Univ. Nebraska Press, 
     Lincoln.  649 pp.  [This is an autobiographical account of James 
     Beckwourth's travels in the Rocky Mountain west and California from  
     1823-1850.  Although Beckwourth spent a considerable portion of his 
     time with Crow Indians in the Yellowstone drainage basin, there is 
     very little natural history information.   Many of Beckwourth's 
     accounts of events do not agree with other observer's accounts 
     leading most modern historians to view his autobiography with 

Old Fort Benton, Montana: early fur trading post with Blackfoot Indians 
     and head of navigation on the Missouri River.  Ye Galleon Press. 
     1975.  31 pp.  [A general history of Fort Benton with some 
     information on bison hides traded.]

Bendire, C.E.  1892.  Life histories of North American birds with special 
     reference to their breeding habits and eggs.  Special Bull. No. 1.  
     U.S. National Mus.

Bendire, C.E.  1895.  Life histories of North American birds from the 
     parrots to the grackles with special reference to their breeding 
     habits and eggs.  Special Bull. No. 3.  U.S. National Mus.  [These 
     two papers by Bendire contain many references to Montana localities 
     that are not published elsewhere.]

Bergman, H.F.  1911-12.  Flora of North Dakota.  N.D. Agr. Col. Survey. 
     Bien. Rpt. 6. pp.151-372.

Betts, N.DeW. 1916.  Birds seen in the valley of the South Fork of the 
     Flathead River, Montana.  Condor 18:161-163.

Biedleman, R.J.  1957.  Nathaniel Wyeth's Fort Hall.  Oregon Historical 
     Quarterly 58:197-250

Bishop, L.B.  1900.  Description of three new species from Alaska.  Auk 
     17:113-120.  [Mentions an intergrade of Sayornis s. saya and 
     S. s. yukonensis from the Musselshell River.]

Bishop, L.B.  1901.  Montana redpolls.  Auk 18:195.

Bishop, L.B.  1915.  Description of a new race of savannah sparrow and 
     suggestions on some California birds.  Condor 17:185-189.

Blakiston, T.W.  1859.  Report of the exploration of two passes through 
     the mountains in 1858.  Woolwich.

Blakiston, T.W.  1859.  Report of the exploration of Kootenai and Boundary 
     Passes of the Rocky Mountains in 1858.  Occasional Papers of the 
     Royal Artillery Institution, London. I:237-254.

Blakiston, T.W.  1862-63.  On birds collected and observed in the interior 
     of British North America.  The Ibis 3:314-320, 4:3-10, 5:39-87, 

Blankinship, J.W.  1901.  Weeds of Montana.  Mont. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
     30. pp 1-70.

Blankinship, J.W.  1902-1904.  Report of the botanist.  Bull Mont. Agr. 
     Exp. Sta.  32:38-44, Ann. Rep. Mont. Exp. Sta. 9:68-79, and 10:64-68.

Blankinship, J.W.  1905.  A century of botanical exploration in Montana.  
     Montana Agricultural College Scientific Studies 1:3-31. [This is a 
     major publication summarizing botanical exploration in Montana.  The 
     paper includes an account of 19th century plant collectors and 
     collections from Montana and bibliography of published accounts of 
     Montana plants.]

Blankinship, J.W.  1905.  Supplement to the flora of Montana.  Montana 
     Agricultural College Scientific Studies 1:33-109.

Bonney, O.H., and L. Bonney.  1970.  Battle drums, and geysers; the life 
     and journals of Lt. Gustavus Cheyrey Doane, soldier and explorer of 
     the Yellowstone and Snake River regions.  Chicago, Sage Books.  622 

Brackenridge, H.N.  1814.  Views of Louisiana. Together with a journal of 
     a voyage up the Missouri River, in 1811.  Quadrangle Books, Inc.  [This
     book contains a historic description of Louisiana and a synthesis of 
     available information on native people, geography, and wildlife of 
     the region.  It also contains Brackenridge's journal of his trip up 
     the Missouri River to the Mandan Villages.  Although he did not enter 
     Montana, the journal has an excellent account of wildlife and habitat 
     along the Missouri River.]

Brackenbridge, H.M.  1976.  Journal of a voyage up the River Missouri 
     performed in 1811.  Crouse Reprint Co. N.Y. 247 pp. 

Brackenridge, H.M.  1819.  Travels in the interior of America.  1904.  
     Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Co.

Bradbury, J.  1817.  Travels in the interior of America in the years 1809, 
     1810 and 1811.  Sherwood, Neely and Jones, London.

Bradley, J.H.  1900.  Affairs at Fort Benton from 1831 to 1869.  Montana 
     Hist. Soc. Contr., vol 3, pp.201-287.

Bradley, J.H.  1966.  Affairs at Fort Benton from 1831 to 1869.  J.S. 
     Canner & Co., Boston

Bradley, J.H. 1896, 1900, 1917, 1923.  The Bradley manuscript.  Montana 
     Hist. Soc. Contr. vols. II, III, VII, IX.

Broadwater Hist. Soc.  1977.  Broadwater bygones.  [This document contains 
     some natural history information for Broadwater county and is 
     available at the Townsend museum.]

Brown, M.H.  1969.  The plainsmen of the Yellowstone: A history of the 
     Yellowstone Basin.  Bison Books, Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.  
     [An excellent account of exploration of the Yellowstone River.  
     Contains some natural history information.]

Burdick, U.L.  1940.  Tales from buffalo land: the story of Fort Buford.  
     Cheltenham, MD.

Burlingame, M.G.  1928.  The economic importance of the buffalo in the 
     northern plains region, 1880-1890.  M.S. Thesis. State Univ. of Iowa.

Burlingame, M.G.  1929.  The buffalo in trade and commerce.  North Dakota 
     Historical Quarterly, III July.

Burpee, L.J. ed.  1927.  Journals and letters of Pierre Gaultier des 
     Varennes de la Verendrye and his sons, with correspondence between 
     the governors of Canada and the French court, touching the search for 
     the western sea.  The Champlain Soc. 

Burpee, Lawrence J. ed. Pathfinders of the great plains; a 	chronicle of 
     La Verendrye and his sons. 112 pp.  [Contains some information on 
     LaVerendrye's trip to the Bighorn Mountains in 1742-43 but does not 
     include natural history information.]

Burpee, Lawrence J. ed.  An adventurer from Hudson bay. Journal of Matthew 
     Cocking, from York Factory to the Blackfeet country, 1772-73.  Royal 
     Soc. of Canada.  [Although Cocking did not enter Montana (closest 
     approach S. Fork Saskatchewan River), his journal is extremely 
     valuable for early natural history information and includes comments 
     from Indians on his natural history observations.]

Burpee, L.J., ed.  1910.  The journal of LaRocque from the Assiniboine to 
     the Yellowstone, 1805.  Publications of the Canadian Archives, 
     Ottawa: No. 3, 17. 

Burroughs, R.D.  1961.  The natural history of the Lewis and Clark 
     expedition.  Michigan State Univ. Press.  East Lansing.  [A thorough 
     documentation of the natural history aspects of the expedition.]
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Cameron, E.S.  1891.  Letter in regard to migration of Swainson hawks in 
     Montana. Ibis, 6th series, III:623-625.

Cameron, E.S.  1900.  On the migration of phalaropes in Montana.  Ibis, 
     7th series, VI:67-70.

Cameron, E.S.  1905.  Sabine's gull in Montana.  Auk 22:76.

Cameron, E.S.  1905.  Nesting of the golden eagle in Montana.  Auk 

Cameron, E.S.  1905.  Hoary redpoll in Montana.  Auk 22:313.

Cameron, E.S.  1906 Nesting of the great blue heron in Montana.  Auk 

Cameron, E.S.  1907-1908.  The birds of Custer and Dawson counties, 
     Montana.  Auk 24:241-270, 389-407, 25:39-56. 

Cameron, E.S.  1908.  Observations on the golden eagle in Montana.  Auk 

Cameron, E.S.  1908.  Changes of plumage in Buteo swainsoni.  Auk

Cameron, E.S. 1913.  Notes on the Swainsons hawk ... in Montana.  Auk 

Cameron, E.S.  1914.  The ferruginous rough-leg ... in Montana.  Auk 

Carleton, M.A.  1893.  List of plants collected by the Garfield University 
     expedition of 1889.  Trans. Kansas Acad. of Sci. 13:50-57.

Carpenter, W.L.  1876.  Field notes on the natural history of the Big Horn 
     Mountains, Montana.  Forest and Stream 7:196. 

Carrington, H.B.  1879.  Absaroka, land of massacre.  J.B. Lippincott 
     & Co., Philadelphia, PA.

Carter, T.H. 1899.  Papers.  Library of Congress, Manuscript Div. [Relates 
     to Glacier National Park.]

Cartwright, D.W. and M.F. Bailey.  1875.  Natural history of western wild 
     animals and guide for hunters, trappers, and sportsmen.  Toledo

Catlin, G.  1876.  Illustration of the manners, customs, and conditions of 
     the North American Indian.  Chatto and Windus, Piccadilly, London.

Catlin, G.  1891.  Catlin's Indians.  Hubbard Bros. Book Co., 
     Philadelphia, PA. 792 pp.

Chaney, L.W.  1885.  A glacier in the mountain rockies.  Science, n.s. 2 
     December 13.

Chambers, F. 1988.  Hayden and his men, being a selection of 108 
     photographs by William Henry Jackson of the USGS and geographical 
     survey of the Territories for the years 1870-1878.  F. Paul 
     Geoscience Literature.

Chapman, F.M.  1907.  The warblers of North America, by Frank Chapman with 
     the co-operation of other ornithologists.  315 pp. [Contains several 
     records from Montana not published elsewhere.]

Chappell, P.E.  1905-6.  A history of the Missouri River.  Kans. State 
     Coll. vol. 9 pp. 237-294.

Chappell, P.E.  1905-6.  Missouri River steamboats.  Kans. State Coll. 
     vol. 9 pp. 295-316.

Chittenden, H.M.  1985.  The Yellowstone National Park.  The Robert Clark 
     Co., Cincinnati, OH.

Chittenden, H.M.  1902.  The American fur trade of the far west.  3 vols. 
     Francis P. Harper, New York. 

Chittenden, H.M.  1903.  History of early steamboat navigation of the 
     Missouri River. Vol. I & II.  Francis P. Harper, New York. 
     [Contains very little natural history information but is an excellent 
     account of steamboat traffic on the River.]

Chittenden, H.M., and  A.T. Richards, eds. 1905.  The life, letters, and 
     travels of Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet, S.J., 1801-1873.  Francis P. 
     Harper.  New York. pp. 1213-1624 

Clarke, H.P.  1896.  Sketch of Malcom Clarke.  Mont. Hist. Soc. Contr., 
     vol. 2, pp. 255-268.

Coale, H.K.  1915.  Present status of the trumpeter swan (Olor 
     bucinator).  Auk 32:82-90.  [Contains a number of recent Montana
     records not published elsewhere.]

Comstock, T.B.  1874.  The Yellowstone National Park.  Amer. Nat. 8:75-76.

Cope, E.D.  1879.  A contribution to the zoology of Montana.  Amer. Nat. 

Cooke, W.W.  1906.  Distribution and migration of North American ducks, 
     geese, and swans.  U.S.  Dept. Ag. Biological Survey, Bull. No. 26. 
     90 pp.  [Saunders (1921) indicates that this book contains some 
     original records for Montana.  Cooke produced 24 similar publications 
     between 1903-1916 dealing with North American birds.  His other major 
     publication is listed below. Saunders (1921) contains a complete 
     listing of Cooke's papers.]

Cooke, W. W.  1910.  Distribution and migration of North American 
     shorebirds.  G.P.O. Bulletin - U.S. Biological Survey #35. 100 pp.  
     [This book gives specific breeding and wintering areas, and migrating 
     and nesting dates.  Many citations pertain to Montana but the sources 
     of the citations are not listed.]

Cooke, W.W.  1915.  Our shorebirds and their future.  Condor 17:237-238.

Cooley, R.A.  1903.  Wood ibis in Montana.  Auk 10:210.

Cooper, J.G.  1868-69.  The fauna of Montana Territory.  Amer. Nat. 
     2:528-538, 596-600, 3:73-84, 294-299, 405-422.

Cooper, J.G.  1869.  Notes on the fauna of the upper Missouri.  Amer. Nat. 

Cooper, J.G.  1869.  The sylva of Montana.  Amer. Nat. 3:405-422.

Cooper, J.G. and G. Suckley.  1854.  The natural history of Washington 
     Territory, with much relating to Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oregon, 
     and California, between the thirty-sixth and fortyninth parallels of 
     latitude, being those parts of the final reports on the survey of the 
     northern Pacific railroad route, containing the climate and physical
     geography, with full catalogues and descriptions of the plants and 
     animals collected from 1853-1857.  Bailliere Bros., New York.
Cooper, J.G.  and G. Suckley.  1860.  Report upon the birds collected on 
     the Pacific Railroad Survey.  Chpt. 1.  Land Birds, Chpt. 2. Water  
     Birds.  in Pacific Railroad Rpt. No. 12, Book 2, Part 3. Route 
     near the forty-seventh and forty-ninth parallels, explored by I.I. 
     Stevens, Governor of Washington Territory in 1853-1855. pp.140-291. 

Coues, E.  1874.  Birds of the Northwest: A handbook of the	ornithology of 
     the region drained by the Missouri River and its tributaries.  Misc. 
     Publ. No. 3, U.S. Geol. Survey of the Territories of Washington.  
     Washington, DC.  802 pp. [Contains a large amount of material on 
     Montana birds not published elsewhere.]

Coues, E.  1874.  On the nesting of certain hawks, etc.  Amer. Nat. 
     8:596-603.  [Observations on the nesting of the ferruginous hawk, and 
     prairie and peregrine falcons along the Milk River.]

Coues, E.  1875.  On breeding of certain birds.  Amer. Nat. 9:75-78.

Coues. E.  1875.  The prairie gopher.  Amer. Nat. 9:147-156.  [This paper 
     deals with the Richardson's ground squirrel in Montana.  Among other
     things, Coues notes that they scavenged extensively on bison 

Coues, E.  1877.  Fur bearing animals: a monograph of North American 
     Mustelidae.  Dept. of Interior.  USGS Misc. Publ. 8:149-153.  
     [Reports on a ferret taken along the Milk River]

Coues, E.  1878.  Field notes on birds observed in Dakota and Montana 
     along the forty-ninth parallel during the seasons of 1873 and 1874.  
     Article XXV. Pages 545-661 in Bull. of the U.S. Geological and 
     Geographical Survey Vol. IV.  Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC.

Coues, E.  1883.  History of the expedition under the command of Lewis and 
     Clark.  Francis P. Harper, New York.  

Coues, E., ed.  1898.  Forty years a fur trader on the upper Missouri, the 
     personal narrative of Charles Larpenteur, 1833-1872.  Francis P. 
     Harper, New York.  [An excellent journal of the fur trade along the 
     Missouri River but contains little natural history information.]

Cox, R.  1831.  Adventures on the Columbia River, including the narrative 
     of a residence of six years on the western side of the Rocky 
     mountains, among various tribes of Indians hitherto unknown.  J & 
     J Harper.  [A well written book of which part includes information of 
     the fur trade in northwest Montana but contains little natural 
     history information.]

Croft, J.M.  1882.  Notes from Florence Springs, MT.  Orn. and Ool. 7:107.

Crooker, O.E.  1892.  Sitta canadensis in Montana.  Oologist 

Crouse, Nellis M.  1928.  In quest of the western ocean.  W. Morrow & 
     Co. 480 pp.  [This book summarizes expeditions in search of the 
     Pacific Ocean starting in the early 1500s up through the 1700s.  It 
     includes a summary of LaVerendryes effort to find the Pacific.]

Crouse, N.M. 1956.  La Verendrye, fur trader and explorer.  Cornell Univ. 

Culbertson, Thaddeus A.  1986.  Journal of an expedition of the Mauvaises 
     Terres and the Upper Missouri in 1850.  Ye Galleon Press.  [An 
     excellent journal containing some natural history information for 
     northeastern Montana and western Dakotas.]

Custer, G.A.  1875.  Report of the Chief of Army Engineers in 
     Annual report of the Secretary of War.  43rd Cong., 2nd sess., H.R. 
     Exec. Doc. I, Pt. II (1874-1875), Appendix KK:  Preliminary report of 
     reconnaissance to the Black Hill, St. Paul Minn., 7 Sept. 1874.
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Dall, W.H.  1902.  Biography of J.G. Cooper.  Science New Series 16 no. 

Dall, W.H.  1915.  Spencer Fullerton Baird, a biography...Philadelphia.

Dary, D.A.  1974.  The buffalo book.  Swallow Press, Chicago.  374 pp.

Dawson, G.M.  1875.  Report on the geology and resources of the region in 
     the vicinity of the forty-ninth parallel, from the Lake of the Woods 
     to the Rocky Mountains with lists of plants and animals collected and 
     notes on the fossils.  North American Boundary Commission. 1872-1875.  

Dawson, G.M.  1890.  Report on a portion of the west Kootenie district, 
     British Columbia.  W.F. Brown & Co. 1890.

DeLacy, W.W.  1902.  A trip up the south Snake River in 1863. in	
     Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana, vol. I, 2nd ed. 
     Helena, MT, Independent Publishing Co. and Rocky Mountain Publishing 

Delafield, J.  1943.  The unfortified boundary.  A diary of the first 
     survey of the Canadian boundary line from St. Regis to Lake of the 
     Woods by Major Joseph Delafield, American Agent under Articles VI and 
     VII of the Treaty of Ghent.  Edited by Robert McElroy and Thomas 
     Riggs.  New York.  [Major Delafield served on the boundary commission 
     with D. Thompson from 1817-1823.]

Dale, H.C.  1941.  The Ashley-Smith explorations.  Glendale, CA.

Denig, E.T.  1930.  Indian tribes of the upper Missouri. ed. by J.N.B. 
     Hewitt.  46th Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., 1928-1929, pp 375-628.  

Denig, E.T.  1961.  Five Indian tribes of the upper Missouri. ed. J.C. 
     Ewers.  Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman.  [An excellent account of 
     the five tribes with each section beginning with an account of the 
     land and wildlife in the region controlled by the tribes.]

DeSmet, P.J.  1843.  Letters and Sketches:  With a narrative of a year's 
     residence among the Indian tribes of the Rocky Mountains.  M. 
     Fithian, Philadelphia, PA.

DeSmet, P.J.  1847.  Oregon missions and travels over the Rocky Mountain 
     in 1845-46.  Edward Dunigan, New York.

DeSmet, P.J.  1863.  Western missions and missionaries: A series of 
     letters.  Kirker and Dunigan, New York.  

Deutsch, H.J.  1962.  A contemporary report on the 49o boundary survey.  
     Pacific Northwest Quarterly 53:17-33.

Devoto, B. ed.  1953.  The journals of Lewis and Clark.  Houghton Mifflin, 

DeVoto, B.A.  1964.  Across the wide Missouri.  Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Dillard, G.M.  A sporting vacation in Montana.  Outing.  [An interesting 
     account of sport hunting near Lewistown with some quantitative data on
     sharptail abundance.]

Dixon, J.M.  Papers, Montana Historical Society.  [Relates to Glacier 
     National Park.]

Doane, G.C.  1870.  Report on the Yellowstone expedition of 1870.  41st 
     Congress 3rd session, Senate Ex. Doc. No. 51, Washington, DC.

Doane, G.C.  1877.  Expedition of Lt. G.C. Doane; Ft. Ellis, Montana to 
     Ft. Hall, Idaho, Oct 11, 1876 to January 4, 1877.  Moose, Wyo. Natural
     History Assoc., 1960. 42 pp.

Douglas, D. 1914.  Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in 
     North America, 1823-1827.

Douglas, E.  1905.  Tertiary of Montana.  Carnegie Mus. Memoirs ser. 2, 
     no. 5.

Douglas, W.B.  1916.  Three years among the Indians and Mexicans - Thomas 
     James.  St. Louis.  

Dunbar, S.  1927.  The journals and letters of Major John Owens, pioneer 
     of the Northwest, 1850-1871.  Montana Historical Soc., Helena.  

Drumm, S.M., ed.  1920.  Journal of a fur-trading expedition on the upper 
     Missouri, 1812-1813, by John C. Lutting.  Missouri Hist. Soc., St. 

Dunraven, Earl of.  1967.  The great divide, travels in the upper 
     Yellowstone in the summer of 1874.  Introduction by Marshall 
     Sprague.  A Bison Book, Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. 377 pp. [A 
     well written and illustrated book of a hunting trip into Yellowstone 
     National Park but contains little natural history information.]

Dunraven, Earl of.  1876.  The Great Divide.  Chatto and Windus. 
     Piccadilly, London.

Durant, M. and M. Harwood.  1980.  On the road with John James Audubon.  
     Dodd, Mead & Co., New York.
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Eide, I.H.  1969.  American Odyssey: The journey of Lewis and Clark.  Rand 
     McNally, Chicago, IL.  

Eigenmann, Carl. H.  1894.  Results of explorations in western Canada and 
     the northwestern United States.  Bull. U.S. Fish Comm., 14:101-132. 

Elliott, T.C. 1911.  Peter Skene Ogden, fur trader.  Oregon Hist. Quart. 

Elliott, T.C. ed., 1914.  Journal of 1824, John Work.  Washington 
     Historical Quarterly, 5.

Elliott, T.C. ed., 1914.  Journal of the Snake River Expedition of 1824 - 
     Alexander Ross.  Oregon Historical Quarterly 14

Elliott, T.C. ed., 1909.  Journal of the Snake River Expedition of 
     1825-6.  Oregon Historical Quarterly, 10.

Elliott, Thompson Coit. 1923.  The Mullan Road:  its local history and 
     significance.  Washington Historical Quarterly.

Elliott, T.C.  1926.  In the land of the Kootenai.  Oregon Historical Soc. 
     Press, Portland.

Elman, R.  1977.  First in the field: America's pioneering naturalists.  
     Van Nostrand Reinhold, Ontario. 

Elrod, M.J.  1908.  The Flathead buffalo range: a report to the American 
     Bison Society of an inspection of the Flathead Indian Reservation, 
     Montana, for the purpose of selecting a suitable location for a 
     national buffalo range.  American Bison Society. 

Elrod, M.J.  1901.  Limnological investigations at Flathead Lake, Montana, 
     and vicinity, July 1899.  Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 22:63-80.

Elrod, M.J.  1901.  The beauties of the Mission Range.  Rocky Mountain 
     Magazine. pp 623-631.

Elrod, M.J.  1902.  Biological reconnaissance in the vicinity of Flathead 
     Lake.  Bull. Univ. of MT, No. 10 Biological Series No. 3.  Missoula.  
     [The ornithological records in this publication are from publications 
     by Silloway.]

Elrod, M.J.  1903.  The resources of Montana and their development. 
     Montana Acad. Sci. 2nd annual meeting 15 pp.

Elrod, M.J.  1904.  Birds in their relation to agriculture.  Reprint from 
     2nd ann. rept. Montana State Brd. of Farmers Institutes, pp 173-190;
     197-208.  Univ. of Montana, Missoula.

Elrod, M.J. 1906.  Butterflies of Montana with keys for determination of 
     species.  MSU B.30, Biol Ser. no. 10.  Missoula.  174 pp.  [Gives 
     detailed descriptions, keys, and plates of butterflies in Montana.  
     Also where they were found and collected.]

Elrod, M.J. no date.  The Montana National Bison Range. Univ. of Montana, 

Elrod, M.J.  no date.  Collecting shells in Montana.  Notes on Pyramidula 
     irodipils, Pyramidula strigosa.  16 pp.

Elrod, M.J. 1912.  The lakes of Glacier National Park. Amer. Microscopical 

Elrod, M.J.  1912.  Some lakes of Glacier National Park.  Govt. Print. 
     Off.  pp 3-29.

Elrod, M.J.  The lakes of Glacier National Park I. Avalanche Lake.  Univ. 
     of Montana, Missoula. 

Elrod, M.J.  The lakes of Glacier National Park II. Lake Louise.  Univ. of 
     Montana, Missoula.

Elrod, M.J.  1924.  Elrod's guide and book of information of Glacier 
     National Park.  2nd ed.

Emerson, W.O.  1902.  In memorian: Dr. James G. Cooper.  Condor 4:101-103.

Engelmann, G.  1862.  Plants collected during the exploration of the upper 
     Missouri by F.V. Hayden in 1853.  Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 12:182-212.

Evermann, B.W.  1891.  A reconnaissance of the streams and lakes of 
     western Montana and northwestern Wyoming.  Bull. U.S. Fish Comm.

Evermann, B.W.  1892.  Description of a new sucker Pantosteus 
     jordani from the upper Missouri Basin.  Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 

Evermann, B.W.  1894.  Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries on 
     the investigations in the Columbia River basin in regard to the salmon 
     fisheries.  Govt. Print. Off.

Evermann, B.W. and U.O. Cox.  1896.  A report upon the fishes of the 
     Missouri River basin.  U.S. Comm. of Fish and Fisheries, (1894) Part 
     XX, p. 325-429.

Evermann, B.W.  1896.  A report upon salmon investigations in the 
     headwaters of the Columbia River in the state of Idaho in 1895;
     together with notes upon the fishes observed in that state in 1894 
     and 1895.  Govt. Print. Off.

Ewan, J. 1950.  Rocky Mountain naturalist.  Univ. of Denver Press. Denver. 

Ewan, J. and N.D. Ewan.  1981.  Biographical dictionary of Rocky Mountain 
     naturalists: A guide to the writings and collections of botanists, 
     zoologists, artists, and photographers, 1682-1932.  Bohn, Scheltema 
     & Holkema.

Ewers, J.C., ed.  1959.  Adventures of Zenas Leonard, fur trader.  Univ. 
     of Oklahoma Press, Norman.  

Ewers, J.C., ed.  1961.  Five Indian tribes of the upper Missouri.  Univ. 
     of Oklahoma Press, Norman.  67 pp.
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Ferris, W.A.  1940.  Life in the Rocky Mountains.  The Old West Pub. Co.  

Flath, D.L. and T.W. Clark.  1986.  Historic status of black-footed ferret 
     habitat in Montana.  in The Black-footed Ferret.  Great Basin 
     Naturalist Memoirs.  Vol 8:63-71.  [Contains information on early 
     records of prairie dog colonies along the Yellowstone River.]

Fletcher, R.H.  1960.  Free grass to fences: The Montana cattle range 
     story.  New York Univ. for the Historical Soc. of Montana, New York.  
     [Contains little natural history information.]

Folsom, D.E.  1894.  Folsom-Cook exploration of the upper Yellowstone in 
     the year 1869.  St. Paul, MN.

Ford, A. ed.  1951.  Audubon's animals: The quadrupeds of North America.  
     Thomas Y. Crowell, New York.

Ford, A. ed.  1969.  Audubon by himself: A profile of John James Audubon 
     from writings selected, arranged and edited by Alice Ford.  The 
     Natural History Press, Garden City, N.Y. 

Ford, L. Capt.  1926.  Captain Ford's journal of an expedition to the 
     Rocky Mountains.  ed. by Louis Pelzer.  Mississippi Valley Hist. 
     Rev. vol. XII.

Forest and Stream.  1876.  Large game in the territories.  7(10):152.

Forest and Stream.  1880.  Large game of the west. 15(11).

Forest and Stream.  1882.  Destruction of large game.  18(7), 18(10):190, 

Forest and Stream.  1882.  Their last refuge.  19(20)382-383.

Forest and Stream.  1884.  Game and forests in the park.  21(25):494.

Forest and Stream.  1885.  Winter range in Yellowstone Park.  24:62, 228.

Forest and Stream.  1887.  Winter game notes from the park.  28(3):46.

Forest and Stream.  1887.  Winter wonderland: through the Yellowstone Park 
     on snowshoes.  28(15):318-319.

Forest and Stream.  1887.  Winter conditions in the park. 28:46

Forest and Stream.  1890.  Effects of protection on elk of the national 
     park.  35:84.

Forest and Stream.  1892.  Elk, Yellowstone National Park.  38:102, 539.

Forest and Stream.  1897.  Elk in Yellowstone Park.  48:1.

Forest and Stream.  1908.  Elk likely to starve in Yellowstone Park.  

Forest and Stream.  1910.  Natural winter range in the park.  74:492.

Forrest, E.R.  1914.  A list of birds observed in the Big Hole Basin, 
     Montana.  Oologist 31:194-197.

Forsyth, J.W. and F.D. Grant.  1875.  Report of an expedition up the 
     Yellowstone River: made in 1875.  War Dept., Govt. Print. Off., 
     Washington, DC.

Freyn, J.  1891.  Plants of the Deer Lodge Valley.  Deutsch. Bot. Monats. 
     8:73-79, 176-182.

Frison, G.C.  1978.  Prehistoric hunters of the high plains.  Academic 
     Press, New York.

Frost, Donald McKay.  Notes on General Ashley. (letters from Daniel T. 

Fryxtell, F.M.  1928.  The former range of the bison in the Rocky 
     Mountains.  J. Mamm.  9:May.
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Gass, P.  1807.  Journal of the voyages and travels of the corps of 
     discovery under the command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clark of the 
     United States from the mouth of the River Missouri through the 
     interior parts of North America to the Pacific Ocean during the years 
     1804, 1805, 1806.  3rd ed. 1811. Philadelphia, PA.  [Sergeant Patrick 
     Gass accompanied Lewis and Clark on their travels across the 
     Louisiana Territory.]

Geiser, Samuel Wood.  1948.  Naturalists of the frontier. Univ. Press, 
     Southern Methodist Univ.

Geyer, C.A.  1895.  Notes on the vegetation and general character of the 
     Missouri and Oregon Territories made during a botanical journey from 
     the state of Missouri across the south-pass of the Rocky Mountains to 
     the Pacific, during the years of 1843 and 1844.  London Journal of 
     Botany 4:479-492, 653-662; 5:22-41, 198-208, 285-310, 509-524.

Gibbs, G.  1873.  Physical geography of the north-western boundary of the 
     United States.  J. Amer. Geograph. Soc. N.Y. 3, 4.

Gilbert, C.H. and B.W. Everman.  1895.  A report upon investigations in 
     the Columbia River Basin with descriptions of four new species of 
     fishes.  Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. (1894), 14:169-208.

Gilbert, Edmund W.  1966.  Exploration of western America, 1800-1850:  An 
     historical geography.  Cooper Square Publishers New York. 233 pp.  
     [This book contains detailed summaries of all major expeditions 
     crossing the West during the first half of the 19th Century.  It also 
     provides regional descriptions of climate, geography, vegetation, 
     wildlife, and water resources based on early accounts.]

Girard, C.  1858.  The fishes of the Pacific Railroad Survey.  Pacific 
     Railroad Reports, 10:1-400.

Glover, R., ed. 1962.  David Thompson's narrative, 1784-1812.  The 
     Champlain Soc., Toronto. 

Goetzmann, W.H. 1959.  Army exploration in the American west 1803-1863.  
     Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT.

Goetzmann, W.H. 1967.  Exploration and Empire: The explorer and the 
     scientist in the winning of the west.  Alfred A. Knopf, New York.  
     [This and previous book by Goetzmann are excellent summaries of 
     western exploration.]

Goetzmann, W.H, D.C. Hunt, M.V. Gallagher, and W.J. Orr. Karl Bodmer's 
     America.  Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

Gooseman, Mildred; J.G. Lepley; & Mark Brown. 1970.  The Missouri-  
     timeless wilderness.  Reprinted from Montana, magazine of western 
     history.  [Historical comparison photography against Bodmer's sketches
     of the upper Missouri River.] 

Gowans, F.R.  1985.  Rocky Mountain Rendezvous.  Peregrine Smith Book, 
     Layton, UT.  [Yearly summary of the fur trader's rendezvous; contains 
     some natural history notes.]

Gowans, F.R. 1986.  Mountain man and grizzly.  Mountain Grizzly 
     Publications, Orem, UT.  210 pp.  [Gowan has gleamed old journals for 
     grizzly/human encounter and reprinted the best accounts.  Many of 
     these are in Montana.]

Gray, A.  1860.  Catalogue of the plants collected east of the Rocky 
     Mountains.  Pacif. Surv. 12, Pt. 2:40-49.  Washington, DC.

Griffen, R.A.  David Meriwether, my life in the mountains and on the 
     plains: The newly discovered autobiography.  Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 

Grinnell, G.B.  1876.  Zoological report. pp 68-89. in Report of a 
     reconnaissance from Carroll, Montana to Yellowstone National Park and 
     return. by William Ludlow, Govt. Print. Off. Washington, DC. Zoology 

Grinnell, G.B.  1885-86.  To the walled in lakes.  Forest and Stream.  

Grinnell, G.B.  Some autumn birds of the St. Mary Lakes region.  Forest 
     and Stream 30:365.

Grinnell, G.B.  1901.  The crown of the continent.  The Century Magazine.  

Grinnell, G.B.  1892.  The last of the buffalo.  Scribner's Magazine.  
     XII: September.

Grinnell, G.B.  1898.  Northern rocky mountain glaciers.  Science, n.s., 8.

Grinnell, G.B.  1923.  The Cheyenne Indians.  New Haven, CT.

Grinnell, G.B.  1915.  The fighting Cheyennes.  New York.

Grinnell, G.B.  1920.  When buffalo ran.  New Haven, CT.

Grinnel, J. 1937.  J.G. Cooper.  Dictionary of American Biography 4:406-407.

Gruell, G.E.  1983.  Fire and vegetative trends in the northern Rockies: 
     interpretations from 1871-1982 photographs.  USDA Forest Service.  
     Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. General 
     Technical Report INT-158.

Gruell, G.E.  1986.  Post-1900 mule deer irruptions in the intermountain 
     west: principle cause and influences.  USDA Forest Service. 
     Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. General 
     Technical Report INT-206.
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Hafen, Leroy R. ed., 1965.  The mountain men and the fur trade of the far 
     Technical Report INT-206.  Scholars of the subject and with 
     introductions by the editor.  Vol. I & II.  Arthur H. Clark Co., 

Hafen, L.R. ed.  1983.  Life in the Rocky Mountains, A diary of wanderings 
     on the sources of the Rivers Missouri, Columbia, and Colorado 
     1830-1835.  With supplementary writings and a detailed map of the fur 
     country.  The Old West Publishing Company, Denver, CO.  

Hafen, L.R., A.N. Hafen, eds.  1961.  Powder River Campaigns and Sawyers 
     Expedition of 1865.  The Far West and Rockies Historical Series, 
     1820-1875.  Arthur A. Clark Co., Glendale, CA.  396 pp.

Haines, A.L., ed. 1955.  Journal of a trapper. Oregon Historical Soc., 
     Portland. 191 pp.  [Journal of Osborne Russell]. 

Haines, A.L.  1965.  The valley of the upper Yellowstone: An exploration 
     of the headwaters of the Yellowstone River in the year 1869.  The 
     journal of Charles W. Cook, David E. Folsom, and William Peterson.  
     Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman.  80 pp.  [This book contains an 
     excellent bibliography detailing the sources for the reassembled 

Hamilton, W.T.  1905.  My sixty years on the plains.  Forest and Stream 
     Pub. Co., New York.

Hamlin, K.L.  1976.  Population ecology and habitat relationships of mule 
     deer and white-tailed deer in prairie-agricultural habitat of eastern 
     Montana.  Pages 139-156 in Montana Deer Studies.  Job Prog. 
     Rep., Montana Dept. Fish, Wildlife, and Parks, Fed. Aid. Proj. 
     W-120-R-7. 170 pp.  [Contains some information on the early history 
     of deer near Terry.]

Hamlin, K.L.  1989.  Mule deer in the Missouri River Breaks, Montana; a 
     study of population dynamics in a fluctuating environment.  Montana 
     Dept. Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. 401 pp.  [This paper contains 
     information on the early history of deer in this area.]

Hampton, H.D.  1971.  How the U.S. Cavalry saved our national parks.  

Harmon, D.W. 1820.  A journal of voyages and travels in the interior of 
     North America.  Andover.  [Harmon spent 19 years (1800-1819) in the 
     interior as an employee of the Northwest Company.  Although he did 
     not enter Montana, (Athabaska River and British Columbia closest 
     approach), his journal is a source of information concerning the 
     country, means of transportation, and the manner of carrying on 

Harris, B. 1952.  John Colter: His years in the Rockies.  Scribner, New 

Harris, E.  1845.  Description of a new species of Parus from the
     upper Missouri.  Nat. Sci. Phila. 2:300-301. 

Harris, E.  1851.  List of birds and mammals found on the Missouri River 
     from Fort Leavenworth to Fort Union, at the mouth of the Yellowstone 
     River.  (reprinted in McDermott 1950).

Harris, M.  1887.  The large game in the (Yellowstone) National Parks.   
     Amer. Field. 27:32

Harris, W.P. and C.W. Harris.  1904.  Lichens and mosses of Montana.  
     Bull. Univ. Mont. 19:308-330.

Havard, V.  1878.  Botanical outlines of the country marched over by the 
     Seventh United States Cavalry during the summer of 1877.  in 
     Annual report of chief of engineers, U.S. Army for 1878. Vol. II, 
     part III. Appendix QQ pp. 1681-1687.  U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 

Havard, V.  1880.  List of plants found on the plains of western Dakota 
     and eastern Montana during the summer of  1877 and spring 1879.  
     in Annual report of chief of engineers, U.S. Army for 1880.  
     Appendix SS pp. 1-20.  Washington, DC. 

Hayden, F.V.  1858.  Plants collected during the exploration of the Upper 
     Missouri by F.V. Hayden.  Rept. Sec. War for 1858. 2:726-747.

Hayden, F.V.  1858.  Catalogue of the collections in geology and natural 
     history obtained by the expedition under command of Liet. G.K. 
     Warren.  in Preliminary report of explorations in Nebraska
     and Dakota in the years 1855,56,58. U.S  Govt. Print. Off.,
     Washington, DC.

Hayden, F.V.  1859.  Geological sketch of the estuary and freshwater 
     deposits forming the bad lands of the Judith River, with some remarks 
     upon surrounding formations.  W.S. Young.

Hayden, F.V.  1862.  Contributions to the ethnography and philology of the 
     Indian tribes of the Missouri valley.  C. Sherman & Sons.

Hayden, F.V.  1862.  On the geology and natural history of the upper 
     Missouri.  Trans. of the Amer. Philosophical Soc. new series 

Hayden, F.V.  1869.  Geographical report of the exploration of the 
     Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers under the direction of Captain W.F. 
     Raynolds, Corps of Engineers, 1859-60.  U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 
     Washington, DC.

Hayden, F.V.  1872.  Fifth annual report of progress.  U.S. Geological 
     Survey of Montana and portions of adjacent territories.  U.S. Govt. 
     Print. Off., Washington, DC.

Hayden, F.V.  1873.  Sixth annual report of the U.S. Geological Survey of 
     the Territories embracing portions of Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and 
     Utah: being a report of progress of the explorations of the year 
     1872.  Govt. Print. Off.

Hayden, F.V.  1875.  Catalogue of the collection in geology and natural 
     history.  G.K. Warren's preliminary report of explorations in 
     Nebraska and Dakota in the years 1855-56-57.  pp. 61-95.  Reprint 
     from report to the Secretary of War pp. 673-711. 

Hayden, F.V.  1877.  Eleventh annual report of the United States 
     Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories: embracing
     Idaho and Wyoming: being a report of the progress of the exploration 
     for the year 1877.

Hayden, F.V.  1878.  Twelfth annual report of progress.  U.S. Geological 
     Survey of Montana and portions of adjacent territories.  U.S. Govt. 
     Print. Off., Washington, DC.

Hazlitt, R., ed.  1934.  The journal of Francois Antoine Larocque from the 
     Assiniboine River to the Yellowstone River-1805.  Univ. of Montana 
     historical reprint no. 20, Missoula. 26 pp.

Heldt, F.G.  1876.  Sir George Gore's Expedition.  Montana Historical Soc. 
     Contributions.  State Publishing Company, Helena.  Vol. I:144-148.

Heller, E.  1925.  Big game animals of Yellowstone National Park.

Henderson, J.G.  1872.  The former range of the buffalo.  Amer. Nat. 7.  
     [An interesting account of bison range contraction.  The majority of 
     the paper deals with bison along the Mississippi River.]

Henry, A. and D. Thompson.  1897.  New light on the early history of the 
     greater Northwest.  ed. E. Coues.  3 Vols. Francis P. Harper, New 

Henshall, J.A.  1894.  List of the fishes of Montana.  Univ. of Montana 
     Bull. #34. Missoula.  [Gives detailed descriptions of species of 
     fish, habits, and habitats with general notes on locations]. 

Henshall, J.A. 1907.  Culture of the Montana grayling. Bureau of fisheries 
     document #628. 7 pp.  [Brief history (1800s) of grayling, with 
     species description, habits, habitat and locations found in Montana.  
     Also has information on propagation]. 

Herrick, F.H.  1917.  Audubon the Naturalist: A history of his life and 
     times.  2 vols.  D. Appleton & Co. New York.

Hind, H.Y. 1860.  Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition 
     of 1857 and the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Expedition of 1858. 2 
     vols. London.

Hofer, E.  1887.  Number of elk estimated to be in Yellowstone.  Forest 
     and Stream 28:319.

Hoffman, W.J.  1885.  Bird names of the Selish, Pah-uta, and Shoshoni 
     Indians.  Auk 2:7-10.

Holmgren, E.J.  1976.  Thomas Blakiston, explorer.  Alberta History 

Holzinger, J.M.  1900.  Lake Mcdonald and vicinity.  Bull. Amer. Bur. 
     Geography 1, No. 3 September

Hooker, W.J. 1847-1856.  Catalogue of Mr. Geyer's collection of plants 
     gathered in the Upper Missouri, the Oregon Territory, and the 
     intervening portion of the Rocky Mountains.  London Jour. Bot    
     6:65-79; Hooker's Jour. Bot. 3:287-300; 5:257-265; 7:371-378;

Hopwood, V.G., ed. 1971.  David Thompson's travels in western North 
     America, 1784-1812.  MacMillan. Toronto.

Hornaday, W.T.  1887.  Buffalo hunt. 

Hornaday, W.T.  1889.  The extermination of the American bison, with a 
     sketch of its discovery and life history.  Pages 367-548 in 
     Part 2[1889]. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1886-87.

Hornaday, W.T.  1908.  Diversions in picturesque game-lands, grand 
     bad-lands and mule deer.  Scribner's July 1908.

Hornaday, W.T.  1910.  America's next great playground.  Recreation, Sept.

Hough, E.  1894.  Forest and Stream's Yellowstone Park game exploration.  
     Forest and Stream, XLIII, May 5 to August 25.

Hulbert, A.B.  1934.  The call of the Columbia.  Denver, CO.  [Contains a 
     reprint of Wyeths 1832 journal.]

Hume, E.E.  1942.  Ornithologists of the United States Army Medical 
     Corps.  John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD.  [A detailed biography of 
     ornithologists serving in the U.S. Army as surgeon/naturalists.]

Humfreville, J.L.  1903.  Twenty years among our hostile Indians.  Hunter 
     & Co., New York.
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Irving, W.  1836.  Astoria, Anecdotes of an enterprise beyond the Rocky 
     Mountains.  Carey, Lee, & Blanchard, Philadelphia, PA.

Irving, W.  1837.  The Rocky Mountains.  Carey, Lee, & Blanchard,
     Philadelphia, PA.  

Irving, W.  1944.  The western journals of Washington Irving.  Edited by 
     J. F. McDermott.  Univ. Oklahoma Press, Norman.  [Although Irving did 
     not enter Montana, his journals are well written and contain 
     considerable natural history information about the West including the 
     Oregon trail.]
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Jackson, C.S.  1947.  William Henry Jackson.  Picture maker of the Old 
     West.  Scribner. 308 pp.

Jackson, W.H.  1940.  Time exposure.  Putnams

Jackson, W.T.  1942.  Governmental exploration of the upper Yellowstone, 
     1871.  Pacific Historical Review 11:188-189.

Jenkins, A.K.  1979.  The naturalists: Pioneers of natural history. 
     Nelson, Toronto.

Jenney, W.P.  1876.  The mineral wealth, climate, rainfall, and natural 
     resources of the Black Hills of Dakota.  44th. Cong., 1st. sess., Sen 
     Exec. Doc. 51.

Johnson, D.R.  1969.  Returns of the American Fur Company, 1835-1839.  J. 
     Mamm., 50:836-839.

Jones, L. and W.L. Dawson.  1900.  A summer reconnaissance in the west.  
     Wilson Bull.  No. 33.  39 pp.  [Contains lists of birds seen between 
     Thompson Falls and Bozeman and between Billings and Miles City.]

Jones, T.  1909.  The last of the buffalo, a history of the buffalo herd 
     on the Flathead Reservation, and an account of the great round up. 
     Cincinnati, OH.

Jones, W. A.  1875.  Report upon the reconnaissance of northwestern 
     Wyoming, including Yellowstone Park, made in the summer of 1873.  
     Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC.

Jones, W.W.  1901.  Preliminary flora of Gallatin County. 78 pp.

Jordan, D.S.  1889.  A reconnaissance of the fishes of Yellowstone 
     National Park, Wyoming in the interest of the U.S. Fish Commission.  
     U.S. Fish Comm. Bull. 9:41-63.

Jordan, D.S.  1891.  Report on the collection of fishes made by Dr. 
     Elliott Coues U.S.A. in Dakota and Montana during the seasons of 1873 
     and 1874.  Bull. U.S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. of the Territories (F.V. 
     Hayden in charge), 4(4):777-799.
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Kastner, J.A.  1977.  A species of eternity.  Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Kelsey, F.D.  1899.  Notes on the fungi of Helena, Montana.  Mycology 

Kendall, W.C.  1915.  Fishes of Yellowstone National Park.  Bur. Fish. 
     Doc. no. 818

Kennerly, W.C. and E. Russell.  1949.  Persimmon Hill, a narrative of old 
     St. Louis and the far West. Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Kidder, J.  1965.  Montana Miracle: it saved the buffalo.  Montana, the 
     Magazine of Western History.  XV spring.

Klotz, O.  1917.  The history of the forty-ninth parallel survey west of 
     the Rocky Mountains.  Geographical Review 3:383-387.

Knight, G.C.  1989.  Ecological and cultural prehistory of the Helena and 
     Deerlodge National Forests.  USDA Publ. 

Knight, W.  1902.  The birds of Wyoming.  Bulletin 55, Wyoming Exper. 
     Sta.  174 pp.

Koch, E.  1941.  Big game from early historical records.  J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 5:357-70.  [A good synthesis of big game in Montana during 
     the 1800s.]

Koch, P.  1929.  Journal of Peter Koch.  The Frontier, Missoula, MT., Vol. 
     9, No. 2, January 1929. 

Kurz, R.F.  1937.  Journal of Rudolph Friedrich Kurz; an account of his 
     experiences among fur traders and American Indians on the Mississippi 
     and upper Missouri Rivers during the years 1846-1852.  Trans. by M. 
     Jarrell. Edited by  J.N.B. Hewitt. U.S.G.P.O.  Bulletin 115 
     Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology.  Washington, DC.
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Langford, N.P.  1972.  Discovery of Yellowstone Park.  Diary of the 
     Washburn expedition to the Yellowstone and Firehole River in the year 
     1870.  Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.  125 pp.

Lanham, U.N.  1973.  The bone hunters.  Columbia Univ. Press. New York.

Laut, A.C.  1914.  The Switzerland in America.  Amer. Forestry, Dec.  

Leiberg, J.B.  1884.  Notes on the flora of western Dakota and eastern 
     Montana adjacent to the Northern Pacific Railroad.  Bot. Gaz. 
     9:103-107; 126-129.

Leiberg, J.B.  1897.  General report on a botanical survey of the Coeur d' 
     Alene Mountains in Idaho during the summer of 1895.  Contributions 
     from the U.S. National Herbarium vol. 5, no. 1, 85 pp.  Govt. Print. 
     Off., Washington, DC.

Leiberg, J.B.  1898.  Forestry of the Bitterroot Reserve.  U.S. Geol. 
     Surv. 19th Ann. Rep. 5:253-282.

Leiberg, J.B.  1899.  The Priest River Forest Reserve.  Govt. Print. Off., 
     Washington, DC. pp. 217-252.

Leiberg, J.B.  1900.  The Bitterroot Forest Reserve.  Govt. Print. Off., 
     Washington, DC.  pp. 317-410.

Leiberg, J.B.  1904.  Little Belt Mountains Forest Reserve, Montana and 
     the Belt Mountains quadrangle.  Prof. Pap. No. 30 Denver, CO. U.S. 
     Dept. of the Int., Geol. Sur.  1-75. 

Leiberg, J.B.  1904.  Forest conditions in the Absaroka division of the 
     Yellowstone forest reserve, Montana, and the Livingston, and Big 
     Timber quadrangles.  Govt. Print. Off.  Geological Survey 
     Professional Paper.  148 pp. 

Leidy, J.  1848.  On a new fossil and species of ruminatoid Pachydermata: 
     Merycoidodon culbertsonii.  Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
     Proc. vol. 4. pp. 47-50.

Leidy, J. 1854.  The ancient fauna of Nebraska: or a description of 
     remains of extinct mammalia and Chelonia, from the Mauvaises Terres 
     of Nebraska.  Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. vol. 6, 126 pp.

Leonard, Zenas.  1904.  Leonard's narrative:  adventures of Zenas Leonard, 
     fur trader and trapper, 1831-1836; reprinted from the rare original 
     of 1839.  ed. W.F. Wagner.  Burrows Brothers Co.

LeRaye, C.  1926.  The journal of Charles LeRaye.  South Dakota Historical 
     Collections. IV, 150-180.

Lewis, M.  1959.  David Thompson, and the Lewis and Clark expedition; an 
     unpublished account of the Lewis and Clark expedition.  Library 
     Press.  14 pp.

Lewis, W.S. and P.C. Phillips, ed.  1923. The journal of John Work, a 
     chief-trader of the Hudson's Bay Co., during his expedition from 
     Vancouver to the Flatheads and Blackfeet of the Pacific Northwest.  
     The Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland, OH.

Link, L.W.  1964.  The Lewis and Clark Expedition: From St. Louis, 
     Missouri to Pacific Ocean and return, with particular reference to 
     the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers.

Lord, J.K.  1866.  The naturalist in Vancouver Island and British 
     Columbia.  2 vols.  Richard Bentley, London.

Lord, J.K.  1876.  At home in the wilderness: What to do there and how to 
     do it: A handbook for travellers and emigrants.  Hardwicke and Rogue, 

Lucy, D.M.  1990.  Photographing Montana: the life and work of Evelyn 
     Cameron.  Alfred A. Knopf. Inc.  [This book contains the photos and 
     diary of Evelyn Cameron]

Ludlow, W.  1876.  Report on a reconnaissance from Carroll, Montana Terr. 
     on the upper Missouri to the Yellowstone National Park and return, 
     made in the summer of 1875.  War Dept., Washington, DC.

Lyall, D.  1863.  Account of the botanical collections made by David 
     Lyall, M.D., R.N., F.L.S., Surgeon and Naturalist to the North 
     American Boundary Commission.  Journal of the Linnaean Soc. of London 
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McChesney, C.E.  1879.  Report on the mammals and birds of the general 
     region of the Bighorn River and Mountains of the Montana Territory.  
     Report of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army.  Appendix SS3.  [The 
     only early list of birds from this section of the State which also 
     includes birds found in the mountains.]

McConnell, R.G.  1885.  Report on the Cypress Hills and adjacent country:  
     Embracing that portion of the district of Assinibia, lying between 
     the international boundary and the 51st parallel and extending from 
     lon. 106o and 110o 50'.  [Report primarily deals with the geology of 
     the region but also includes a brief description of the habitat and 
     includes old photographs.]

McDermott, J.F., ed.  1950.  Journal of an expedition to the Mauvaises 
     Terres and the upper Missouri in 1850 by Thaddeus Culbertson.  
     Smithsonian Institution Bulletin on American Ethnology 147:1-145.

McDermott, J.F., ed.  1951.  Up the Missouri with Audubon, by Edward 
     Harris.  Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman.  [This is Harris' account 
     of Audubon's expedition to Fort Union.  It contains natural history 
     information for the region]

McDermott, J.R., ed.  1956.  A tour of the prairies.  Univ. of Oklahoma 
     Press, Norman.

McDermott. J.F., ed.  1965.  Audubon in the west.  Univ. of Oklahoma 
     Press, Norman.

McDonnell, A. ed.  1940.  The Fort Benton Journal, 1854-1856, and the Fort 
     Sarpy Journal, 1855-1856.  Mont. Hist. Contr., vol. 90.

MacDougal, D.T.  1892.  Recent botanical exploration in Idaho.  Science 
     n.s. 20:311-313

McFarling, L.  1955.  Exploring the northern plains, 1804-1876.  Caxton, 
     Caldwell, ID.

McKelvey, S.D.  1955.  Botanical explorations of the trans- Mississippi 
     west, 1790-1850.  Arnold Arboretum of Harvard Univ., Jamaica Plain, 
     MA.  [An authoritative documentation of western botanical 

Magaret, H.  1940.  Father DeSmet, pioneer priest of the Rockies.  Farrar 
     and Rinehart, New York.

Malouf, C. and S. Conner, eds.  1962.  Symposium on buffalo jumps.  
     Montana Archaeological Society, Memoir, No. 1.

Mathews, A.E.  1868.  Pencil sketches of Montana...31 lithographic 
     plates.  New York. published by the author 95 pp. 

Martinka, C.J.  1974.  Ecological role and management of grizzly bears in 
     Glacier National Park, Montana.  Proc. 3rd.  International Conference 
     on Bears - Their Biology and Management.  Binghamton, New York.  

Marcy, R.B.  1866.  Thirty years of army life on the border.  Harper & 
     Brothers, New York.  442 pp.

Marsh, J.B.  1884.  Four years in the Rockies; or the adventure of Issac 
     P. Rose, of Shenango Township, Laurence County, Pennsylvania.  New 
     Castle, PA., Printed by W.B. Thomas.  262 pp. 

Matthes, F.E.  1904.  The Alps of Montana.  Appalachia, April.

Maximillian, Prince of Wied.  1843.  Travels in the interior of North 
     America.  Ackermann & Co., London.

Maximillian, Alexander Phillip von.  1976.  Travels in the interior of 
     North America.  Dutton, New York.

Mearns, E.A.  1904.  Birds of Fort Custer, Montana.  Condor 6:20- 21.

Meehan, T.  1898.  The plants of the Lewis and Clark Expedition across the 
     continent, 1804-1806.  Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila. Jan 1898:12-49

Meisel, Max. 1924.  A bibliography of American natural history; the 
     pioneer century, 1769-1865; the role played by the scientific 
     societies; scientific journals; natural history museums and botanic 
     gardens; state geological and natural history surveys.  Premier 
     publishing Co. 

Mengarini, G. 1938.  Mengarini's narrative of the Rockies, memoirs of old 
     Oregon, 1841-1850, and St. Mary's mission. ed. A.J. Partoll.  Sources 
     of NW history: no. 25.  [An account of establishing St Mary's Mission 
     in the Bitterroot Valley.  Contains a good account of the abundance 
     of salmon near Fort Hall and bison abundance in the prairies.]

Merk, F.  1931.  Fur trade and empire.  Cambridge.

Merk, F. ed.  1934.  P.S. Ogden to the Governor, chief factors and chief 
     traders, July 10, 1825.  Mississippi Valley Historical Review 21.

Merriam, C. H.  1873.  Sixth Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey 
     of the Territories, by F.V. Hayden.  Birds pp. 670-704.  [An 
     important list of birds containing a number of records from Ft. Ellis 
     and the Madison River]

Merriam, Clinton Hart,  V. Bailey.  1891.  Biological reconnaissance of 
     south-central Idaho.  Govt. Print. Off. 

Merrill, G.P.  1969.  The first one hundred years of American Geology.  
     Lubrecht and Cramer, Foresburh, N.Y.  

Merrill, J.C.  1881.  Oological notes from Montana.  Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club 6
     :203-207.  [Nesting of the red-naped sapsucker, junco, Audubon 
     warbler, mountain chickadee, and ruby-crowned kinglet.]

Merril, J.C.  1888.  Notes on the birds of Fort Klamath, Oregon.  Auk 

Merril, J.C.  1897-1898.  Notes on the birds of Fort Sherman, Idaho.  Auk 
     14:347-357.  [These last two papers contain some observations of 
     birds in Montana.]

Mershon, W.B.  1923.  Recollections of my 50 years of hunting and 
     fishing.  Boston, MA. 259 pp.

Mershon, W.B.  1925.  Notes on hunting conditions in North Dakota in the 
     '80s.  Bien. Rpt. State Game and Fish Comm. N.D. 1923-24.  8 pp.

Messiter, C.A.  1890.  Sport and adventure among the North American 
     Indians.  R.H. Porter, London.  368 pp.

Milner, J.W  no date. Notes on the grayling of North America, and 
     descriptions of new species of Coregonus and Argyrosomus 
     20 pp.

Mitchell, G.E.  1910.  A new national park.  Natl. Geographic, 18.

Mitten, W.  1864.  The bryologia of the Survey of the 49th parallel of 
     latitude.  Jour. Linnaean Soc. 8:13-55.

Montana Historical Society.  1876 to 1910.  Volumes 1 to 7.  Helena, MT.

Morgan, D.L.  1954-1955.  Journal of William H. Ashley.  Missouri 
     Historical Soc. Bulletin, Vol. 11 #1-3

Morgan, D.L.  1964.  The west of William H. Ashley.  Denver, CO.

Morgan, D.L.  1953.  Jedediah Smith.  Indianapolis, IN.

Morgan, L.H.  1959.  The Indian journals.  Univ. Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Muir, J.  1898.  The wild parks and forest reservations of the west.  
     Atlantic Monthly, Jan.

Mullan, J.  1855.  Report of an exploration from Fort Benton to the Muscle 
     Shell River, and thence by the southern Littht Blackfoot River to the 
     St. Mary's River.  in: Stevens, I.I., compiler.  Report of 
     Railroad-Governor Stevens' report to the Secretary of War.  Senate 
     Executive Document 78, 33rd Congress, 2 Sess., v.1. U.S. Govt. Print. 
     Off., Washington, DC.

Mullan, J.  1855.  Report of a reconnaissance from the Bitter Root Valley 
     to Fort Hall and back.  in: Stevens, I.I., compiler.  Report 
     of exploration of a route for the Pacific Railroad-Governor Stevens'
     report to the Secretary of War.  Senate Executive Document 78, 33rd 
     Congress, 2 Sess., v.1. U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC.

Mullan, J.  1861.  Report of Lieutenant Mullan, in charge of the 
     construction of the military road from Fort Benton to Fort Walla
     Walla.  36th Congress, 2 Sess., House Executive Document 44.  U.S. 
     Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC. 

Mullan, J.  1863.  Report on the construction of a military road from Ft. 
     Walla Walla to Ft. Benton.  Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC.

Mullan, J.  1863.  Report of a reconnaissance from the Coeur d'Alene 
     Mission to Thompson's prairie....thence across the mountain to the 
     Bitter Root River...and over the high divide to the Ten-Mile prairie, 
     of the Couer d'Alene River.  in: Report on the Construction of 
     a Military Road From Fort Walla-Walla to Fort Benton. by Cap. John 
     Mullan.  Washington, DC.

Mullan, J. 1865.  Miners' and Travelers' guide to Oregon, Washington, 
     Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado via the Missouri and Columbia 
     Rivers accompanied by a general map of the mineral regions of the 
     northern sections of the Rocky Mountains.  Wm. M. Franklin, New York.

Mumey, N.  Life of Jim Baker.  Montana Historical Society.  [Contains some 
     natural history notes on the Bear Paw Mountains, Milk, Musselshell, 
     and Bighorn Rivers.]

Murphy, J.M.  1879.  Rambles in northwestern America from the Pacific 
     Ocean to the Rocky Mountains.  Chapman & Hall, London. 364 pp.

Murphy, J.M.  1879.  Sporting adventures in the far west.  Sampson, Low, 
     Marston, Searle, & Riverton, London.  404 pp. 

Muttkowski, R.A.  1925.  Food of trout in Yellowstone National Park.  
     Roosevelt Wildl. Bull. 2:470-497.

Muttkowski, R.A.  1929.  Ecology of trout streams in Yellowstone National 
     Park.  Roosevelt Wildl. Ann. 2:151-240.
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Nasatir, A.P.  1931.  John Evans: explorer and surveyor.  Missouri 
     Historical Review, XXV  436-441.

Nasatir, A.P.  1952.  Before Lewis and Clark.  Documents illustrating the 
     history of Missouri 1785-1804.  St. Louis Historical Documents 
     Foundation, St. Louis, MO.  375 pp. 

Nelson, A.  1900.  The flora of Montana.  Bot. Gaz. 30:61-64

Nelson, A.  1902.  An analytic key to some of the common flowering plants 
     of the Rocky Mountain region.  D. Appleton & Co.  94 pp.

Newberry, J.S.  1884.  Notes on the geology and botany of the country 
     bordering the Northern Pacific Railroad.  Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 

Newton, H. and W.P. Jenny. 1880.  Report on the geology and resources of 
     the Black Hills of Dakota, with Atlas.  Washington, DC.

Newton, H.  1880.  Historical sketch of explorations in the Upper Missouri 
     region.  in  U.S. Geogr. and Geol. Surv. Rocky Mountain 
     Region, Geology of the Black Hill of Dakota.  Washington, DC.

Nicollet, J.N.  1845.  Report intended to illustrate a map of the 
     hydrographical basin of the upper Mississippi River.  H.R. Doc. 52, 
     28th Congr., 2nd Sess.

Nitske, W.R. and S. Littinville, eds.  1973.  Travels in North America, 
     1822-1844.  Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Norris, J.P.  1888.  A series of eggs of Oroscoptes montanus.  Orn. 
     and Ool. 8:162.

Norton, G.P.  1919.  Shore vegetation of Flathead Lake, Montana.  Plant 
     World 22:355-362

Nuttall, T.  1813.  A catalogue of new and interesting plants collected in 
     Upper Louisiana and principally on the river Missouri, North 
     America.  Reprint in Pittonia, 2:116-119

Nuttall, T.  1834.  A catalogue of a collection of plants made chiefly in 
     the valleys of the Rocky Mountains or Northern Andes towards the 
     source of the Columbia River, by Mr. Nathaniel B. Wyeth, and 
     described by T. Nuttall.  Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
     of Philadelphia 7:1-60.
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Oberholser, H.C.  1905.  The forms of Vermivor celata (Say).  Auk
     22:242-247.  [Contains a number of Montana records.]

Oberholser, H.C.  1907.  A new Agelaius from Canada.  Auk 
     24:332-336.  [Contains Montana records of this species.]

Oberholser, H.C.  1914.  A monograph of the Genus Chordeiles 
     Swainson, type of a new family of goatsuckers.  Bull. 86, U.S.
     National Museum 131 pp.  [Cites a number of Montana records of 
     different forms.]

O'Hara, C.C.  1900.  A history of the early explorations and of the 
     progress of geological investigations in the Black Hills region.  
     South Dakota School of Mines, Rapid City.  Bull. No. 4 7-44.

Owen, D.D.  1852.  Report of a geological survey of Wisconsin, Iowa, & 
     Minnesota and incidentally of a portion of Nebraska Territory. 
     Philadelphia, PA.  [Contains geologic report by Dr. Evans for the 
     western Dakotas.]
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Palliser, John.  1853.  Solitary rambles and adventures of a hunter in the 
     prairies.  John Murray, London.

Palliser, John.  1856.  The solitary hunter; or, Sporting adventures in 
     the prairies.  G. Routledge & Co.

Palliser, J. 1863.  The journals - detailed reports and observations 
     relative to the explorations of that portion of British North America 
     which lies between the British boundary line and the height of land 
     or watershed of the northern or frozen ocean respectively and a 
     longitude between the western shore of Lake Superior and the Pacific 
     Ocean during the years 1857, 1858, 1859, 1860.  London.

Palliser, J. 1860.  Exploration - British North America (microform). 
     Further papers relative to the exploration by the expedition under 
     Captain Palliser of that portion of British North American which lies 
     between the northern branch of the river Saskatchewan and the 
     frontier of the United States.  Eyre and Spottswoode, for H.M. 
     Stationery Off., London. 

Palmer, T.S.  1912.  Chronology and index of the more important events in 
     American game protection, 1776-1911.  U.S. Dept. of Agr., Biological 
     Survey Bulletin, No. 41.  Washington, DC. 

Parkman, F.  1902.  The Oregon Trail.  Boston.  [Parkman did not enter 
     Montana but his journal contains considerable natural history 
     information of the Oregon Tail.]

Parry, C.C.  1874.  Botanical observations in western Wyoming.  With 
     notices of rare plants and descriptions of new species collected on 
     the route of the Northwestern Wyoming Expedition under Capt. W.A. 
     Jones.  Amer. Nat. 8:9-14, 102-108, 175-180, 211-215

Patten, J.I.  1926.  Buffalo hunting with the Shoshone Indians in 1874.  
     Annals of Wyoming, IV, October.

Peale, T. and C. Pickering.  1848.  1838-1842 Wilkes Expedition or U.S. 
     Exploring expedition - Charles Wilkes.  Mammalia & Ornithology 
     Vol. 8.

Phillips, P.C. and W. Lewis, eds. 1923.  The journal of John Work. 
     Cleveland, OH. 

Phillips, P.C.  1934.  William Henry Vanderburg, fur trader.  Mississippi 
     Valley Historical Review. 21 #3 377.  

Phillips, P.C. ed.  1957.  Forty years on the frontier as seen in the 
     journals and reminiscences of Granville Stuart. vol 1.  The Arthur 
     Clark Co., Glendale, CA.

Picton, H.D. and I.E. Picton.  1975.  Saga of the Sun: a history of the 
     Sun River elk herd.  Montana Dept. of Fish and Game, Helena.  55 pp.  
     [Contains historical information on elk in this area.]

Point, N.S.J.  1931.  Journey in a barge on the Missouri from the Fort of 
     the Blackfeet to that of the Assiniboines.  Edited by G.J. Garraghan, 
     S.J. Mid-America, vol. 13, pp. 236-254.

Point, N. 1967.  Wilderness kingdom, Indian life in the Rocky Mountains: 
     1840-1847, the journals and paintings of Nicolas Point, S.J. 
     Translated and introduced by J.P. Donnelly, S.J.  New York.  

Porter, M.R. and O. Davenport.  1963.  Scotsman in Buckskin.  New York.

Porter, T.C.  1851.  List of plants collected by Mr. T.A. Culbertson on an 
     expedition to the Mauvaises Terres and upper Missouri in 1850.  Fifth 
     Annual Report.  Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 1851:133-136  
     [Reprinted in McDermott 1950.]

Porter, T.C.  1872.  Catalogue of plants collected during the expedition 
     to the headwaters of the Yellowstone River in 1871.  Hayden Surv. 
     1871:477-498.  Washington, DC.

Porter, T.C.  1851.  List of plants collected by Mr. Culbertson.  Fifth 
     Annual Report.  Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 1851:133-136.

Potts, D.T.  1824.  Letter Thomas Cochlen, July 7, 1824.  Yellowstone 
     National Park Museum Collection, Albright Visitor Center, Mammoth, WY.

Powell, J.W.  1889.  Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden.  Ninth Annual Report of 
     the U.S. Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 
     1887-1888.  U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC.

Pursh, F.  1814.  Flora americae septentrionalis; or, A systematic 
     arrangement and description of the plants of North America; 
     containing, besides what have been described by preceding authors 
     many new and rare species collected during twelve years of travels 
     and residence in that country. 2 vols.  White, Cochrane & Co.

Pyfer, A.M.  1897.  The nesting of Clarke's Nutcracker.  Oologist 14:100-101

Pyfer, A.M.  1898.  Birds of Montana.  Oologist 15:14-16.  [A short list 
     of birds observed near Salesville in the Gallatin Valley.]


Quaife, M.M. ed.  1915.  Extracts from Capt. McKay's Journal-and others.  
     Wisconsin Historical Soc. Proc., LXII.  195 pp.

Quaife, M.M. ed.  1928.  Yellowstone Kelly, the memoirs of Luther S. 
     Kelly.  Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT.  268 pp.

Quivey, A.D.  1966.  The Yellowstone expedition of 1874.  Contributions to 
     the Historical Soc. of Montana.  268-284.
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Raynolds, W.F.  1868.  Report on the exploration of the Yellowstone and 
     Missouri Rivers in 1859-1860.  Senate Executive Document 77, 40th 
     Congress 2nd Sess. 1317.  Govt. print. Off., Washington, DC. 174 pp.

Reid, R. and Gannon, C.G.  1929-30.  Journal of the Atkinson-O'Fallon 
     Expedition.  N. Dak. Hist. Quart. 4:5-56.

Rich, E.E.  1950.  Peter Skene Ogden's Snake country journal.  Hudson's 
     Bay Record Society, London.  

Richardson, J.  1873.  Wonders of the Yellowstone.  Scribner, Armstrong, 
     & Co., New York.

Richmond, C.W. and Knowlton, F.H.  1894.  Birds of south-central Montana.  
     Auk 11:298-308.  [An important list of birds found in Gallatin and 
     Park Counties.]

Ridgeway, R.  1898.  New species, etc., of North American birds. - II. 
     Fringillidae.  Auk 15:319-324.  [Contains Montana records.]

Roberts, J.  1977.  The amazing adventures of Lord Gore.  Sundance 
     Publishing Co.  Silverton, CO.  [Reconstructed journal of Gores 

Roberts, T.P.  1902.  The upper Missouri River, from a reconnaissance made 
     in 1872.  Contributions to the Historical Soc. Montana. vol 1, 2nd 
     ed.  Independent Publishing Company, Helena, MT.  [Contains some good 
     natural history notes such as 8,533 cfs flow in the River during 
     mid-July at the 3-forks.]

Robinson, W.  1907.  Mammals - a partial list of the fauna of the 
     Yellowstone National Park.  MS deposited in the Roosevelt Wildl. 
     Forest Experiment Station in 1924.

Rodgers, Andrew Denny III.  1944.  John Merle Coulter, Missionary in 
     Science.  Princeton Univ. Press, New Jersey.  321 pp. [This book is a 
     biography of Coulter, a botantist, who was with the Hayden expedition 
     to Yellowstone National Park in 1872.]

Roll, T.E.  et al.  1980.  The Bootlegger Trail Site: A late prehistoric 
     bison kill.  Heritage Conservation & Recreation Service, 
     Washington, DC. 

Rollins, P.A.  1935.  The discovery of the Oregon Trail.  New York.

Roosevelt, T.  1886.  Hunting trips of a ranchman.  G.P. Putnam's Sons, 
     New York.  

Roosevelt, T.  1893.  American big game hunting.

Roosevelt, T.  1893.  Wilderness hunting.

Roosevelt, T.  1897.  Trail and Camp-fire.

Roosevelt, T. 1899.  Big game hunting in the Rockies and on the Great 

Roosevelt, T. et al.  1902.  The deer family.  MacMillan & Co., London.

Ronan, P.  1890.  Historical Sketch of the Flathead Indian nation.  Helena, 

Rose, J.N.  1890.  Notes on some western Plants.  Bot. Gaz. 15:63-66.

Ross, A.  1913.  Journal of Flathead Post in 1825.  Oregon Historical 
     Quarterly, 14

Ross, A.  1849.  Adventures of the first settlers on the Oregon or 
     Columbia River.  London.

Ross, A.  1855.  The fur hunters of the far West.  2 vols. Smith, Elder, 
     & Co., London.

Russell, I.  1885.  Glaciers.  U.S. Geological Survey, 5th Ann. Rpt.

Rust, H.J.  1917.  An annotated list of birds of Fremont County, Idaho as 
     observed during the summer of 1916.  Condor 19:29-43.

Rydberg, P.A.  1900.  Catalogue of flora of Montana and Yellowstone 
     National Park. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 1:1-492.

Rydberg, P.A.  1917.  Flora of Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains.

Rydberg, P.A. and C.L. Shear.  1897.  A report upon the grasses and forage 
     plants of the Rocky Mountain region.  Bull. U.S. Dept. Agr. Div. Bot. 
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Sage, R.B.  1859.  Rocky Mountain Life; or, startling scenes and perilous 
     adventures in the far West.  E. Candy. 363 pp.  [This book contains a 
     narrative possibly based on journal notes of Sage's travels during 
     the 1840s.  He did not enter Montana but traveled through parts of 
     Wyoming, Idaho, and the Dakotas.  The book contains quite a bit of 
     natural history information.]

Salisbury, R.  1901.  Glacial work in the western mountains in 1901.  J. 
     Geol. 9.

Sergeant, C.S.  1884.  Report on the forest resources of North America.  
     9th Census 9:564-566.  [This report includes results of a botanical 
     survey of western Montana by Sereno Watson.  He collected plants in 
     the Bighole, Beaverhead, Clark Fork and Bitterroot Valleys.]

Sergeant, R.H.  1911.  Through Glacier National Park.  The Outlook,   
     Oct. 28.

Saunders, A.A. 1910.  Bird notes from southwestern Montana.  Condor 
     12:195-204.  [Notes from the mountains of Jefferson and Silverbow 
     Counties.  Between 1909 and 1916, Saunders published 33 papers on 
     Montana birds of which only three are listed here.  Saunders (1921) 
     contains a complete listing of these papers.]

Saunders, A.A.  1911.  A preliminary list of the birds of Gallatin County, 
     Montana.  Auk 28:26-49.

Saunders, A.A. 1912.  Some birds of southwestern Montana.  Condor 
     14:22-32.  [A local list for Jefferson, Deerlodge, Silverbow, and
     southern Powell Counties.]

Saunders, A.A.  1921.  A distributional list of the birds of Montana.  
     Pacific Coast Avifauna #14.  Cooper Ornithological Club, Berkeley, 
     CA.  194 pp.  [This is a major publication on Montana birds.  It 
     summarizes published accounts of Montana birds up to 1920 and 
     contains an extensive bibliography. Most of the publications listed 
     by Saunders with direct reference to Montana are included in this 

Schmeckabier, L.F.  1904.  Catalogue and index of the publications of 
     Hayden, King, Powell and Wheeler surveys: namely geological and 
     geographical surveys of the territories; Geological exploration of 
     the 40th parallel; Geographical and Geological Surveys of the Rocky 
     Mountain Region; Geographical Surveys West of the 100th meridian. 
     Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC.  [Contains many references to 
     previous explorations and surveys conducted prior to the surveys
     enumerated above.]

Schmidt, C.C.  1904.  List of birds that have been observed in the State 
     of North Dakota. 

Schubert, F.N., ed.  1981.  Explorer on the northern plains: Lieutenant 
     Gouverneur K. Warren's preliminary report of explorations in Nebraska 
     and Dakota in the years 1855-'56-'57.  Engineer Historical Studies, 
     No. 2.  Off. of the Chief of Engineers, Washington. DC.

Schullery, P. and L Whittlesey.  1992.  The documentary record of wolves 
     and related wildlife in the Yellowstone National Park area prior to 
     1882.  Pages 1-4 to 1-174 in Varely, J.D. and W.G. Brewster, 
     eds., Wolves for Yellowstone?  A report to the United States 
     Congress, Volume IV research and analysis.  National Park Service, 
     Yellowstone National Park, Wyo.  [This report is a definitive account 
     of wildlife and habitat conditions in the Park prior to 1882.  It 
     contains detailed summaries of all visitors to the Park area during 
     this time period who left a written record.  The bibliography of this 
     publication contains over 220 citations (only the major journals and 
     reports dealing with Yellowstone Park are cited in our report).  It 
     is highly recommended that anyone desiring information about the early 
     history of the Yellowstone Park area obtain a copy of Schullery & 

Schultz, J.W.  1901.  Winter hunting of goat and sheep in the Rockies.  
     Outing, Jan.

Seton, E.T.  1898.  Mammals of the Yellowstone National Park.  Recreation 

Seymour, A.B.  1889.  (Title unknown - paper deals with parasitic fungi 
     collected in Montana in 1884.)  Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 

Sheridan, Lt. Gen. D.W.  1882.  Report of an exploration of parts of 
     Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana in August and September 1882.  Washington.

Silloway, P.M.  1900.  Notes on the long-billed curlew.  Condor 2:79-82.  
     [Silloway published 22 papers on Montana birds between 1900 and 
     1917.  Some of the more important papers are listed here.  Saunders 
     (1921) has a complete listing.]

Silloway, P.M.  1901.  Summer birds of Flathead Lake.  Bull. Univ. 
     Montana, Biological Series No. 1.

Silloway, P.M.  1903.  Additional notes to summer birds of Flathead Lake.  
     Bull. Univ. Montana, Biological Series No. 6.

Silloway, P.M.  1903.  Birds of Fergus County, Montana.  Fergus County  
     Free High School, Lewistown. 77 pp.

Silloway, P.M.  1909.  A problem in indeterminates.  Condor 11:86-90.  
     [Nesting of the long-billed curlew, short-eared owl, sharp-tailed 
     grouse, and lark bunting near Lewistown.]

Silloway, P.M.  1917.  Some interesting birds of Judith Basin, Montana.  
     Oologist 34:156-170.

Skinner, M.P.  1925.  Birds of Yellowstone National Park. 

Skinner, M.P.  1925.  Bears of Yellowstone National Park.

Skinner, M.P.  1927  Predatory and fur-bearing animals of the Yellowstone 
     Park,  Roosevelt Wildlife Bull. 4, no. 2.

Smith, K.  1900.  For a National Glacier Park.  Technical World Magazine, 

Smith, K.  1914.  Glacier National Park.  The Outlook, Oct. 28.

Soper, J.D.  1941.  History, range, and home life of the northern bison.  
     Ecological monographs, XI October.

Sperry, L.  1898.  Avalanche Basin, Montana Rockies.  Appalachia, Jan.

Sprague, I.  Unpublished journal entry for July 28, 1843.  Library of the 
     Boston Athenaeum.

Spry, I.M.  1963.  The Palliser Expedition: An account of John Palliser's 
     British North American Expedition 1857-1860.  The MacMillan Co., 

Spry, I.M., ed.  1968.  The papers of the Palliser Expedition, 1857-1860.  
     The Champlain Soc., Toronto. 694 pp.

Standley, P.C.  1921.  Flora of Glacier National Park.

Stanley, G.F., ed.  1970.  Mapping the frontier: Charles Wilson's diary of 
     the survey of the 49th parallel 1858-1862, while secretary of the 
     British Boundary Commission.  Univ. of Washington Press, Seattle.

Stegner, W.  1980.  Wolf Willow: A history, a story, and a memory of the 
     last plains frontier.  Bison Books, Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

Stenzel, F. 1975.  James M. Alden: Yankee artist of the Pacific Coast, 
     1854-1860.  Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, TX.

Stevens, I.I.  1853-54.  Exploration and survey of the Riviere des Lac to 
     the Rocky Mountains. in: Pacific Railroad Survey, vol 11.  
     H.R. Ex. Doc. 91, 33d. Congr., 2d Sess.

Stevens, I.I.  1860.  Narrative and final report of explorations for a 
     route for a Pacific railroad.  Washington.

Stone, W.  1916. Philadelphia to the coast in early days and the 
     development of western ornithology prior to 1850.  Condor 18:3-14.
     [Reviews work of Peale, Say, Gamble, Heerman, Townsend, Nuttall, and 

Strahorn, R.E.  1877.  The handbook of Wyoming and guide to the Black 
     Hills and Bighorn region.  Cheyenne, WY.

Strahorn, R.E.  1881.  Montana and Yellowstone National Park.  Ramsey, 
     Millett & Hudson, Kansas City.  191 pp.

Strong, W.E.  1876.  A trip to the Yellowstone National Park: Journal of 
     W.E. Strong.  Washington, DC.  143 pp.

Stuart, G.  1865.  Montana as it is.  

Stuart, G.  1963.  Diary and sketchbook of a journey to "America" in 1866, 
     and return trip up the Missouri River to Fort Benton, Montana.  
     Dawson's Book Shop, Los Angles, CA. 55 pp.

Stuart, G.  1977.  Pioneering in Montana: The making of a state, 
     1864-1887.  Bison Books, Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

Stuart, J.  1902.  Adventures on the upper Missouri.  Contributions to the 
     Historical Soc. Montana. vol 1, 2nd ed.  Independent Publishing 
     Company, Helena, MT. 80-89.  [Some natural history notes and second 
     hand accounts]

Stuart, J.  1902.  The Yellowstone expedition of 1863.  Contributions to 
     the Historical Soc. Montana. vol 1, 2nd ed.  Independent Publishing 
     Company, Helena, MT. 162-179.

Suckley, G.  1853.  George Suckley to Rutsen Suckley, Fort Vancouver, 
     December 9, 1853.  Suckley Papers.  [Details trip from the Bitterroot 
     River to the mouth of the Columbia and collections made.]

Suckley, G.  1860.  Report on the fishes collected on the Pacific Railroad 
     Survey.  Pacific Railroad Rep.,  12(Pt. III), No. 5:307-368.

Sullivan, M.S.  1934.  The travels of Jedediah Smith.  Santa Anna, CA.

Sunder, J.E.  1965.  The fur trade on the upper Missouri, 1840-1865.  
     Univ. Oklahoma Press, Norman.
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Taylor, J.H.  Frontier and Indian lives and kaleidoscopic lives.  
     Washburn, N.D.  1936 reprint.  [Contains information on treeharvest 
     on the Missouri River.]

Tilden, J.E.  1896.  American algae.

Topping.  1883.  The Chronicles of the Yellowstone.  Pioneer Press Co.  
     St. Paul, MN.

Thomas, D. and K. Ronnefeldt, eds.  1982.  People of the first man: life 
     among the plains Indians in their final days of glory; the first hand 
     account of Prince Maximillian's expedition up the Missouri River, 
     1833-34.  Promontory Press, New York. 256 pp. [Excellent account of 
     the Missouri River in the 1830's complete with sketches by Bodmer.  
     Good natural history notes.] 

Thompson, D.  1916.  David Thompson's narrative of his explorations in 
     Western America, 1784-1812.  Champlain Society. 582 pp.

Thompson, D.  1925.  Narrative of the expedition to the Kootenai and Flat 
     Bow Indian countries on the sources of the Columbia River.  Oregon 
     Historical Quarterly 26:23-49

Thompson, L.S.  1985.  Montana's Explorers: The pioneer naturalists.  The 
     Montana Magazine, Helena. [Excellent summary of the major explorers 
     in Montana from 1805 to 1864.]

Thomson, F.  1962.  Last buffalo of the Black Hills.

Thorne, P.M.  1895.  List of birds observed in the vicinity of Fort Keogh, 
     Montana, from July 1888 to September, 1892.  Auk 12:211-219.  [An 
     important local list.]

Thwaites, R.G., ed.  1904. Original journals of the Lewis and Clark 
     expedition, 1804-1806.  Dodd, Mead & Co., New York.

Thwaites, R.G., ed.  1904-07.  Early western travels, 1748-1846.  The 
     Arthur H. Clark Company, Cleveland, OH.

Thwaites, R.G., ed.  1966a.  Part II of Maximilian, Prince of Wied's 
     travels in the interior of North America, 1832-1834.  in Early 
     Western Travels 1748-1846, Vol 23. AMS Press, Inc. New York.

Thwaites, R.G., ed.  1966b.  DeSmet's Oregon missions and travels over the 
     Rocky Mountains 1845-1846. in Early Western Travels 1748-1846, 
     Vol 23. AMS Press, Inc., New York.

Townsend, J.K.  1839.  Narrative of a journey across the Rocky Mountains 
     to the Columbia River and a visit to the Sandwich Islands, Chili 
     & etc. with a Scientific Appendix.  Henry Perkins, Philadelphia, 
     PA. 259 pp.

Traphagen, F.W.  1899.  Notes on alkali soil in Montana.

Trenton, P. and P.H. Hassrick.  1983.  The Rocky Mountains: A vision for 
     artists in the Nineteenth Century.  Univ. of Oklahoma Press, Norman.  

Triplett, F.  1883.  Conquering the wilderness.  St. Louis, MO.

Trudeau,.  Trudeaus' Journal.  South Dakota Historical Collections, VII 

Tweedy, F.  1886.  Flora of Yellowstone National Park.  Washington, DC.

Twinning, W.J.  1877.  Survey of the northern boundary of the United 
     States form the Lake of the Woods to the summit of the Rocky 
     Mountains.  Senate Ex. Doc. 41, 44th Congress, 2nd session.

Tyrell, J.B., ed.  1916.  David Thompson, narrative of his exploration in 
     northwestern America, 1784-1812.  The Champlain Soc., Toronto.
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U.S.D.A. Forest Service.  1993.  Elkhorn landscape analysis.  Helena 
     National.  Helena National Forest, Helena, MT.

U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey, U.S.D.A.  1911.  The mammals of the 
     Bitterroot Valley, Montana, in their relation to spotted fever.  
     Circ. No. 82:10.  U.S. Gov't.  Print. Off.

U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management.  1979.  Historical comparison 
     photography - Missouri Breaks, Montana.  U.S. Dept. of Interior,
     Montana State Off., Billings, MT.  109 pp.

U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management.  1980.  Historical comparison
     photography - mountain foothills Dillon Resource Area, Montana.
     U.S. Dept. of Interior, Montana State Off., Billings, MT. 120pp.

U.S.D.I. 1881.  Fourth annual report of the superintendent of the
     Yellowstone National Park to the Secretary of the Interior for the 
     year 1880.  Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC. 64 pp.

U.S.D.I. 1882.  Fifth annual report of the superintendent of the  
     Yellowstone National Park. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, DC. 64 pp.

U.S.D.I.  1892.  Report of the superintendent of the Yellowstone National 
     Park to the Secretary of the Interior.  Govt. Print. Off., Washington 
     DC.  18 pp.

U.S. Exploring Expedition. 1838-1842.  U.S. exploring expedition (Wilkes 
     expedition) Botany.  Cramer.  1971  

U.S.G.S.  1973.  Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden and the founding of the 
     Yellowstone National Park.  2nd ed.  Washington, DC. 45 pp.

U.S. War Dept.  1855-1860.  Reports of explorations and surveys to 
     ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad 
     from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.  12 vols. U.S. Govt. 
     Print. Off., Washington, DC.
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Vaughan, J.C.  1957.  Colonel Alfred Jefferson Vaughan - the frontier 
     ambassador.  Montana Historical Library, Helena, MT. 461 pp.

Vaughan, R. 1900.  Then and now: or 36 years in the Rockies.  Tribune 
     Publ. Co., Minneapolis, MN.  461 pp.

Vinton, S.  1926.  John Colter, discoverer of Yellowstone Park.  New York.

Victor, F.F.  1871.  The river of the west.  Columbian Book Company, 
     Hartford, CT.

Visher, S.S.  1911.  Annotated list of birds of Harding County, 
     northwestern South Dakota.  Auk 28:5-16.  [Contains some 
     observations of birds in the Long Pines of Carter County, Montana.]

Visher, S.S.  1914.  The biology of Harding County, Northwestern South 
     Dakota.  S.D. Geographic Survey, 6:126.
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Wagner, H. R. and C. Camp.  1953.  The plains and the Rockies: A 
     bibliography of original narratives of travel and adventure, 
     1800-1865.  Charles C. Camp, San Francisco, CA. 601 pp.  [This is
     an authoritative summary of published material on western exploration.]

Walcheck, K.C.  1969.  Birds observed by Lewis and Clark in Montana, 
     1805-1806.  Proc. of the Montana Acad. of Sci. 29:13-29.

Walcheck, K.C. 1976.  Montana wildlife 170 years ago.  Montana Outdoors 

Walcheck, K.C.  1980.  Audubon bighorn sheep.  Montana Outdoors 11 

Walcheck, K.C.  1982.  With pen and plant in hand.  Montana Outdoors 13 

Warren, G.K.  1856.  Explorations in the Dacota Country, in the year 
     1855.  Senate Ex Doc. 76, 34th Congr. 1st Sess.

Warren, G.K.  1858.  Preliminary report of explorations in Nebraska and 
     Dakota in the years 1855-'56-'57.  U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 
     Washington, DC.

Watson, C.M.  1909.  The life of Major-General Sir Charles William 
     Wilson.  Publisher unidentified, London.

Watts, R.C. and L.C. Eichhorn.  1981.  Changes in the birds of central 
     Montana.  Proc. Montana. Acad. Sci.  40:31-37.

Wedel, W.R. 1975.  Some early Euro-American percepts of the great plains 
     and their influence on anthropological thinking.  in: B.W.
     Blouet and M.P. Lawson eds. Images of the plains: the role of human 
     nature in settlement.  Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.  13-20.

Wheeler, G.M.  1889.  Report upon United States Geographical Surveys West 
     of the one hundreth meridian.  U.S. Govt. Print. Off., Washington, 

Wheeler, G.M., 1889.  Memoirs upon the voyages, discoveries, explorations 
     and surveys to and at the west coast of North America and interior of 
     the United States west of the Mississippi River between 1500 and 
     1880.  Washington, DC. in: U.S. Geogr. Surv. West of 100th 
     Meridian VI appx. F. p481-745.  [Chronological list, old maps, 
     epitome of Warren's memoir, and geological and geographical 
     explorations 1857-1880.]

Wheeler, O.D.  1896.  Elk, member in Yellowstone Park.  Recreation 

Whishart, D.J. 1979.  The fur trade of the American West, 1807-1840:  A 
     Geographical Synthesis.  Univ. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

White, C.A.  1895.  Memoir of Ferdinand Vandiveer Hayden, 1839-1887.  
     National Academy of Science Biographical Memoirs 3:395-413.

White, M.C., ed.  1950.  David Thompson's journals relating to Montana and 
     adjacent regions, 1808-1812.  Montana State Univ.  Press, Missoula.  
     345 pp. 

Whitford, H.F.  1905.  The forest of Flathead Valley, Montana. Bot. Gaz. 
     39:99-122, 194-218, 276-296.

Whitney, C., G.B. Grinnell, and O. Wister.  1904.  Musk-ox, bison, sheep, 
     and goat.  New York.

Willis, B.  1902.  Along the northwest boundary.  The World's Work, July.

Willy, J.  1915.  A week in Glacier National Park.  The Hotel Monthly, Aug.

Williams, R.S.  1882.  Notes on some birds of the Belt Mountains, Montana 
     Territory.  Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club.  7:61-63.

Williams, R.S.  1882.  Description of a nest of the water ouzel.  Bull. 
     Nutt. Orn. Club  7:118

Williams, R.S.  1882.  The white-throated swift breeding on Belt River, 
     Montana.  Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club 7:122-123.

Williams, R.S.  1883.  The Calliope hummingbird and pygmy owl in Montana.  
     Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club 8:59.

Williams, R.S.  1886.  A flock of Chen rossii east of the Rocky  
     Mountains.  Auk 3:274.

Williams, R.S.  1888.  The upper Missouri River birds.  Auk 5:14-18.  [An 
     account of birds observed at Great Falls.]

Williams, R.S.  1890.  Myadestes townsendii wintering in Montana. 
     Auk 7:98

Williams, R.S.  1890.  The breeding ranges and songs of three thrushes in 
     Montana.  Auk 7:292-293.

Williams, R.S.  1902.  A preliminary list of Montana mosses.  N.Y. Bot. 
     Gard. Bull. 2:351-380

Work, John.  1923.  The journal of John Work, a chief-trader of the 
     Hudson's Bay Co. during his expedition from Vancouver to the 
     Flatheads and Blackfeet of the Pacific Northwest, edited, and with an 
     account of the fur trade in the Northwest, and life of Work.  Arthur 
     H. Clark Co.

Wyeth, N.J.  1969.  The journals of Nathaniel J. Wyeth, with the Wyeth 
     monograph on the Pacific Northwest Indians appended.  Ye Galleon 

Wyeth, N.J.  1899.  The correspondence and journals of Captain Nathaniel 
     J. Wyeth 1831-6; a record of two expeditions for the occupation of 
     the Oregon country, with maps, introduction and index...  Univ. 
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Yarrow, H. C.  1875.  Life zones and mammals of the explorations west of 
     the 100th meridian.  Washington, DC.  129 pp.

York, L.A.  ed.  1914.  Journal of a trapper, or, Nine years in the Rocky 
     Mountains: 1834-1843.  [Osborne Russell's journal.]

Young, F.G. ed. 1899.  The correspondence and journals of Captain 
     Nathaniel J. Wyeth, 1831-1836.  A record of two expeditions for the 
     occupation of the Oregon country.  Sources of the History of Oregon 
     I: parts 3-6.  Eugene: Oregon Historical Society.  
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