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Ecological Effects of Fire Retardant
Chemicals and Fire Suppressant Foams

Publications


Terrestrial Ecosystem

Larson, D.L. and W.E. Newton.  1996.  Effects of fire suppressant foam on 
     vegetation in North Dakota prairie.  Pages 123-127 In Proceedings 
     International Wildland Fire Foam Symposium and Workshop (compiled 
     by G.S. Ramsey), Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, May 3-5, 1994.  
     Published by Natural Resources Canada, Petawawa National Forestry 
     Institute, Information Report PI-X-123.

Larson, D.L. and W.E. Newton.  1996.  Effects of fire retardant chemicals 
     and fire suppressant foam on North Dakota prairie vegetation.  
     Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science 50: 137-144.

Larson, D.L., W.E. Newton, P.J. Anderson, and S.J. Stein. Submitted.  
     Effects of fire retardant chemical and fire suppressant foam on 
     shrub steppe vegetation in northern Nevada.  Submitted to journal 
     review 10/10/97 - NOT YET AVAILABLE FOR DISTRIBUTION.

Vyas, N.B., and E.F. Hill.  1996.  Toxicity of fire retardant chemicals and 
     fire suppressant foams to vertebrate and invertebrate wildlife species.  
     Pages 128-131 In Proceedings International Wildland Fire Foam Symposium 
     and Workshop (compiled by G.S. Ramsey), Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, 
     May 3-5, 1994.  Published by Natural Resources Canada, Petawawa National 
     Forestry Institute, Information Report PI-X- 123.

Vyas, N.B., J.W. Spann, and E.F. Hill.  1996.  Effects of Silv-Ex on terrestrial 
     wildlife.  Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science 50: 150-151.

Aquatic - Laboratory.

Hamilton, S.J., S.F. McDonald, M.P. Gaikowski, and K.J. Buhl.  1996.  Toxicity
     of fire retardant chemicals to aquatic organisms: Progress report.  
     Pages 132-144 In Proceedings International Wildland Fire Foam Symposium 
     and Workshop (compiled by G.S. Ramsey), Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, 
     May 3-5, 1994.  Published by Natural Resources Canada, Petawawa National 
     Forestry Institute, Information Report PI-X- 123.

McDonald, S.F., S.J. Hamilton, K.J. Buhl, and J.F. Heisinger.  1996.  Acute
     toxicity of fire control chemicals to Daphnia magna (Straus) and
     Selenastrum capricornutum (Printz).  Ecotoxicology and Environmental 
     Safety 32:62-72.

Gaikowski, M.P., S.J. Hamilton, K.J. Buhl, S.F. McDonald, and C.H. Summers.  
     1996.  The acute toxicity of three fire- retardant and two fire-
     suppressant foam formulations to the early life stages of rainbow
     trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 
     15:1365-1374.

Gaikowski, M.P., S.J. Hamilton, K.J. Buhl, S.F. McDonald, and C.H. Summers.  
     1996.  Acute toxicity of firefighting chemical formulations to four 
     life stages of fathead minnow.  Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 
     34:252-263.  

McDonald, S.F., S.J. Hamilton, K.J. Buhl, and J.F. Heisinger.  1997.  Acute
     toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-suppressant chemicals to Hyalella
     azteca (Saussure).  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16:1370-1376.

Buhl, K.J., and S.J. Hamilton.  1997.  Acute toxicity of fire-retardant and foam-
     suppressant chemicals to early life stages of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus 
     tshawytscha).  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.  (In press 9/15/97).

Buhl, K.J., and S.J. Hamilton.  1997.  Acute toxicity of fire-retardant, foam-
     suppressant, and nitrogenous chemicals, and surfactants to rainbow trout 
     (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.  
     (In in-house review 3/31/97).

Aquatic Ecosystem -- Field.

Finger, S.E.  1996.  Environmental implications of fire-fighting chemicals:  
     A summary of current research by the National Biological Survey.  
     Pages 119-122 In Proceedings International Wildland Fire Foam 
     Symposium and Workshop (compiled by G.S. Ramsey), Thunder Bay, 
     Ontario, Canada, May 3-5, 1994.  Published by Natural Resources 
     Canada, Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Information Report 
     PI-X-123.

Poulton, B.C. and S.E. Finger.  1996.  Effects of fire retardant foams on a 
     prairie wetland ecosystem -- A study of the North Dakota prairie 
     wetland community.  Pages 145-151 In Proceedings International 
     Wildland Fire Foam Symposium and Workshop (compiled by G.S. Ramsey), 
     Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, May 3-5, 1994.  Published by Natural 
     Resources Canada, Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Information 
     Report PI-X-123.

Poulton, B.C.  1996.  Effects of two fire suppressant foams on benthic 
     invertebrates colonizing artificial substrates in portable 
     limnocorrals.  Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of 
     Science 50: 145-149.

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